Law Project for
Science for Sale
Data based medicine and clinical
judgement, by David
Healy, Derelie Mangin, and David Antonuccio,
International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 25
Pharmaceutical research and development: what do we get
for all that money? by Donald W Light and Joel R
Lexchin, British Medical Journal, BMJ
2012;344:e4348 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e4348 (Published 7
Reporting Bias in Industry-Supported Medication Trials
Presented at the American Psychiatric Association
Meeting, by Serijan Sen, MD, PhD, & May Prabhu, MD,
MSc,LLB, Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology,Volume
32, Number 3, June 2012, Letters to the Editor.
A Comparison of
DSM-IV and DSM-5 Panel Members’ Financial Associations
with Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists, by
Lisa Cosgrove and Sheldon Krimsky, Essay: Plos
Medicine, Vol. 9; Iss. 3 (2012).
Dollars for Docs
Compilation of payments
from Drug Companies to doctors
Medical Ghostwriting in US Courts, by Xavier Bosch1, Bijan
Esfandiari and Leemon McHenry, Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Medicine, January 2012, Vol.9, Iss. 1, e1001163.
Industry Uses the ICMJE Guidelines to Manipulate Authorship—And How
They Should Be Revised, by Alastair Matheson, Public Library
of Science-Medicine, Vol 8:8 (2011).
Being the Ghost in the Machine:
A Medical Ghostwriter's Personal View, by Linda Logdberg,
Public Library of Science-Medicine, Vol 8:8 (2011).
Does Academic Medicine Allow Ghostwriting? A Prescription for Reform,
by Jonathan Leo & Jeffrey R. Lacasse & Andrea N. Cimino, Springer,
DOI 10.1007/s12115-011-9455-2 (2011)
Legal Remedies for Medical
Ghostwriting: Imposing Fraud Liability on Guest Authors of
Ghostwritten Articles, by Simon Stern, and Trudo Lemmens,
PLoS Medicine, Vol.8, Iss. 8 (2011)
Reporting of Conflicts of
Interest in Meta-analyses of Trials of Pharmacological Treatments,
by Michelle Roseman, BA; Katherine Milette, BS; Lisa A. Bero, PhD;
James C. Coyne, PhD; Joel Lexchin, MD; Erick H. Turner, MD; and
Brett D. Thombs, PhD, Journal of the American Medical Association,
Vol 305, No. 10 (2011).
Complaint of Scientific Misconduct against Dwight L. Evans, Laszlo
Gyulai; Charles Nemeroff, Gary S. Sachs and Charles L. Bowden,
to the United States Office of Research Integrity, July 8, 2011.
Social Work and the Biomedical Industrial Complex,
by Tomi Gomory, Stephen E. Wong, David Cohen and Jeffrey
Lacasse, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare,
in press, December 2010.
“Under the radar”: Nurse
Practitioner Prescribers and Pharmaceutical Industry
Promotions, by Elissa C. Ladd, PhD, Rn, FNP-BC;
Diane Feeney Mahoney, PhD, APRN, BC, FGSA, FAAN; and
Srinivas Emani, PhD, Journal of Managed Care,
Vol. 16: No. 12; e358-e-362 (December, 2010).
Med Schools Flunk at Keeping Faculty Off Pharma Speaking
Circuit, by Tracy Weber and Charles Orsntein, Pro
Publica, December 19, 2010.
Drug Maker Wrote Book Under 2 Doctors’ Names, Documents
Say, by Duff Wilson, The New York Times,
November 29, 2010.
Doctors and Drug
Companies: Still Cozy after All These Years, by
David Henry, PLOS Medicine, Vol. 7, Issue 11,
Lies, Damned Lies, and Medical Science, by David H.
Freedman, The Atlantic, November, 2010.
Interest at Medical Journals: The Influence of
Industry-Supported Randomised Trials on Journal Impact
Factors and Revenue – Cohort Study, by Andreas Lundh,
Marija Barbateskovic, Asbjørn Hrobjartsson, and Peter C.
Gøtzsche, Plos Medicine, Volume 7,| Issue 10 ,
clinical trial data: setting the record straight, by
Fiona Godlee, editor, Elizabeth Loder, associate editor,
British Medical Journal, October 12, 2010.
Ghostwriting and Academic Medicine, by Jonathan Leo
and JeffreyLacasse, The Chronicle of Higher Education,
July 19, 2010.
Ghostwriting in Medical Literature, Minority Staff
Report, U.S. Senate Committee on Finance, Sen. Charles
Grassley, Ranking Member, June 24, 2010.
Relationships With Pharmaceutical Companies: Part of the Problem or Part of
the Solution?, by Thomas R. Insel, MD JAMA, 2010;303(12):1192-1193.
Ghostwriting at Elite
Academic Medical Centers in the United States, by Jeffrey R.
Lacasse, Jonathan Leo, Public Library of Science (PLoS), Vol 7, Iss 2
From Evidence-based Medicine to
Marketing-based Medicine: Evidence from Internal Industry Documents,
Glen I. Spielmans & Peter I. Parry, Bioethical Inquiry, DOI
A Case Study of Salami Slicing:
Pooled Analyses of Duloxetine for Depression, by Glen I. Spielmans,
Tracey L. Biehn, and Dustin L. Sawrey, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics,
2009, letter from National Institute of Mental Health to Emory University.
Ghostwriting: The Dirty
Little Secret of Medical Publishing That Just Got Bigger; Editorial from
the PLoS Medicine Editors, September 2009 | Volume 6 | Issue 9 | e1000156.
The Neurontin Legacy -- Marketing
throuh Misinformation and Manipulation, by C. Seth Landefeld, M.D., and
Michael A. Steinman, M.D., New England Journal of Medicine, 360;2,
| Are Doctors' Loyalties Divided? Drug
Firms' Cash Skews Doctor Classes: Company-funded UW Courses Often Favor
Medicine, Leave Out Side Effects, by
Susanne Rust and John Fauber, Journal Sentinel (Wis), March
Clinical trials and drug
promotion: Selective reporting of study 329, by Jon N. Jureidini, Leemon
B. McHenry, and Peter R. Mansfield, International Journal of Risk & Safety
in Medicine 20 (2008) 73–81.
Reporting Bias in Drug
Trials Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration: Review of Publication
and Presentation, Kristin Rising, Peter Bacchetti, Lisa Bero, PLoS
Medicine, Vol. 5:11 1561-1570 (November 2008).
Bias and the Pharmaceutical Industry: The Case of Lamotrigine in Bipolar
Disorder, by S. Nassir Ghaemi, MD, MPH; Arshia A. Shirzadi, DO; Megan
Filkowski, B, Medscape J Med. 2008;10(9):211.
- Publication of Clinical
Trials Supporting Successful New Drug Applications: A Literature Analysis,
by Kirby Lee, Peter Bacchetti, and Ida Sim, Plos Medicine, September
2008, Vol.5, Issue 9, e191.
Our Censored Journals,
by David Healy, in Medicine, Mental Health, Science, Religion and Well-being
(A.R.Singh and S.A. Singh eds), MSM, 6 Jan - Dec 2008, p244-256.
- Contract Research
Organisations: Truly independent research? by Jeanne Lenzer, medical
investigative journalist, British Medical Journal, August 18, 2008.
There and (Unbiased) Doctor in the House? by Jeanne Lenzer and Shannon
Brownlee, British Medical Journal, 2008;337:a930, July 23, 2008.
State Medical Board Responses
to an Inquiry on Physician Research Misconduct, by Sefan P. Kruszewski,
M.D., Richard P. Paczynski, MD., and Marzana Bialy, Journal of Medical
Lisensure and Discipline, Vol. 94, No. 1: 16-22 (2008).
Editorial: Impugning the Integrity of Medical Science: The Adverse Effects of
Industry Influence, by Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD, MPH and Phil B.
Fontanarosa, MD, MBA, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA),
Guest Authorship and Ghostwriting in Publications
Related to Rofecoxib [Vioxx]: A Case Study of Industry Documents From Rofecoxib
Litigation, by Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS, Kevin P. Hill, MD, MHS, David S.
Egilman, MD, MPH, and Harlan M. Krumholz, MD, SM, Journal of the American
Medical Association (JAMA), 2008—Vol 299, No. 15: 1800-1812.
How Much of the Medical Literature Is Shaped Behind the Scenes by the
Pharmaceutical Industry? by Sergio Sismondo, PLOS, September
2007, Volume 4, Issue 9, e286.
The engineers of human souls & academia,
by David Healy, MD, Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 16, 3, 2007.
Influence of Drug Company Authorship and
Sponsorship on Drug Trial Outcomes, Tongeji Tunaraza and Rob Poole,
British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 82-83 (2007).
The Growth of
Psychopharmacology in the 1990s: Evidence-based practice or irrational
exuberance, by Robert Rosenheck, International Journal of Law and
Psychiatry, 2005, Vol. 28, 467-483. Extensive review of research into SRI
antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics shows research skewed by drug
company dominance and financial ties; proposed is an independent scientific
agency with broad responsibility in research and monitoring.
Empirical Evidence for
Selective Reporting of Outcomes in Randomized Trials: Comparison of Protocols to
Published Articles, by An-Wen Chen et. al., JAMA, 2004, Vol.
291, No. 20, 2457-2465. Reporting of clinical trials shows that medical research
protocols and results were more often than not presented incompletely and out of
context, in support of the treatment or drug under study.
Forum: Financial Conflicts of Interest in Psychiatry, The Journal of the
World Psychiatry Association, February, 2007.
Publication Bias, Data Ownership, and the Funding Effect in Science: Threats to
the Integrity of Biomedical Research, by S. Krimsky, in Rescuing Science
from Politics: Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific Research, Edited by
W. Wagner and R. Steinzor. Cambridge University Press, 2006
Consensus, by David Healy, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry,
(2006) 30: 135-56.
Cochrane reviews compared with industry
supported meta-analyses and other meta-analyses of the same drugs: systematic
review, by Anders W Jørgensen, Jørgen Hilden, Peter C Gøtzsche, British
Medical Journal (BMJ), BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38973.444699.0B
(published 6 October 2006). This study found that industry supported
reviews of drugs should be read with caution because they were less transparent,
had few reservations about methodological limitations of the included trials,
and had more favourable conclusions than the corresponding Cochrane
- How profits, research mix at Stanford,
Mercury News, July 9, 2006.
- Can We Tame the Monster, British Medical
Journal, July 8, 2006.
- Commercial bias in medical journals:
Commercial influence and the content of medical journals, by Joel Lexchin,
Donald W Light, British Medical Journal, 2006; 332:1444-7.
- Financial Ties between DSM-IV Panel
Members and the Pharmaceutical Industry, by Lisa Cosgrove, Sheldon Krimsky,
Manisha Vijayaraghavan, and Lisa Schneider, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics,
Psychother Psychosom 2006;75:154–160, DOI: 10.1159/000091772. This study
found that 56% of the 170 DSM panel members had one or more financial
associations with companies in the pharmaceutical industry and 100% of the
members of the panels on "Mood Disorders" and "Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic
Disorders" had financial ties to drug companies.
- Drug trials: Stacking the deck: Studies
of medical literature are confirming what many suspected — reporters of clinical
trials do not always play straight. Jim Giles talks to those pushing for a
fairer deal, Nature, 15 March 2006; | doi:10.1038/440270a.
- The Effect of Conflict
of Interest on Biomedical Research and Clinical Practice Guidelines: Can We
Trust the Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine?, by John Abramson, MD, MSFP,
and Barbara Starfield, MD, MPH, Journal of the American Board of Family
Practice, 2005, Vol. 18 No. 5: 414-18.
Authorship in Industry-Initiated Randomised Trials, by Peter C Gøtzsche,
Asbjørn Hróbjartsson, Helle Johansen, Mette Haahr, Douglas G. Altman, An-Wen
Chan, PLoS Medicine,
2005 January; 4(1): e19. Ghost authorship, found to be a very common practice in
industry-sponsored trials, serves commercial interests and results in a lack of
Medical Students’ Exposure to
and Attitudes About Drug Company Interactions: A National Survey, JAMA,
September 7, 2005—Vol 294, No. 9, 1034-1042.
Psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry:
Who pays the piper?, by Moncrieff J, Hopker S, Thomas P., Psychiatric
- As Universities Get Billions in Grants, Some See
Abuses: Cornell Doctor Blows Whistle Over Use of Federal Funds, Alleging Phantom
Studies, Wall Street Journal, August 16, 2005; Page A1
- Medical Journals Are an Extension of
the Marketing Arm of Pharmaceutical Companies, by Richard Smith, PLoS Med.
2005 May; 2(5): e138, Published online 2005 May 17. doi:
- Postmarketing Surveillance—Lack of
Vigilance, Lack of Trust by Phil B. Fontanarosa, MD Drummond Rennie, MD
Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD, MPH, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA),
December 1, 2004—Vol 292, No. 21 2647.
Registration: A Great Idea Switches From Ignored to Irresistible, by
Drummond Rennie, MD, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) September 15, 2004—Vol 292, No. 11 1359-1362.
- How Tightly
Do Ties Between Doctor and Drug Company Bind?, by By Abigail Zuger, M.D., New York Times, July 27,2004.
Controversy Spotlights Flawed System, by Jim Rosack, Psychiatric News
July 16, 2004, Volume 39 Number 14.
Medicine's Data Gap:Results
of Drug Trials Can Mystify Doctors Through Omission, New York Times, July
21, 2004, By Barry Meier.
- The Guardian, Foregone conclusions: The public is being regularly deceived by the drug trials
funded by pharmaceutical companies, loaded to generate the results they need,
Wednesday January 14, 2004.
- Revealed: how drug firms
'hoodwink' medical journals. Pharmaceutical giants hire ghostwriters to produce
articles - then put doctors' names on them. Antony Barnett, public affairs
editor, Sunday December 7, 2003, The Observer
- Stealth Merger: Drug Companies and
Government Medical Research. Some of the National Institutes of Health's top
scientists are also collecting paychecks and stock options from biomedical
firms. Increasingly, such deals are kept secret. By David Willman. LA Times
Staff Writer. December 7, 2003
- Whistleblower's lawsuit
could shake up the drug industry, by Theo Emery, Associated Press,
August 9, 2003. An AP story about a lawsuit over Pfizer
promoting fraudulent claims about neurontin's benefits.
- Psychology in the Prescription Era:
Building a Firewall Between Marketing and Science, by David O. Antonuccio,
William G. Danton Terry Michael McClanahan, American Psychologist,
Vol 48, No. 12, 1028-43 (2003).
Design and Reporting
Modifications in Industry-Sponsored Comparative Psychopharmacology Trials,
by Daniel Safer, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 2002, Vol. 190,
No. 9, 583-592. Identifies and classifies specific techniques drug companies use
to modify research design and reporting to serve marketing needs.
- Transcript from Now with Bill Moyers, "Science
- Debate Resumes on the Safety of
Depression's Wonder Drugs," August 7, 2002 New York Times article describing
the drug companies' hiding of data about the link between Selective Serotonin
Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) anti-depression drugs and suicides, particularly in
people 18 and under.
- Scandal of scientists
who take money for papers ghostwritten by drug companies: Doctors named as
authors may not have seen raw data, Sarah Boseley, health editor, Thursday
February 7, 2002, The Guardian
Relationships Between Authors of Clinical
Practice Guidelines and the Pharmaceutical Industry, Niteesh K. Choudhry,
M.D.; Henry Thomas Stelfox, M.D.: and Allan S. Detsky M.D., Journal of the
American Medical Association, (February 6, 2002) V. 287, No.56, 102-617
- Drug firms accused of
distorting research, by Sarah Boseley, UK Guardian, September 10,
- Uneasy Alliance: Clinical Investigators and
the Pharmaceutical Industry, Thomas Bodenheimer, M.D., Health Policy
Report (May 18, 2000, Vol. 342, No. 20, 1539-1544.
- Is Academic Medicine For Sale, Marcia
Angell, M.D., The New England Journal of Medicine, (May 18, 2000)
- Accuracy of Data in
Abstracts of Published Research Articles, by Roy M. Pitkin, MD, Mary Ann
Branagan, Leon Fe. Burmeister, PhD, Journal of the American Medical
Association, Vol 281, No. 12, 1110-1111 (1999).
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