Legal journals / law reviews




Am J Law Med

                1987  13 (1): 7-52

                Clayton EEW

                From Rogers to Rivers: the rights of the mentally ill to refuse medication

                Sympathetic article, criticizing slowness of courts and legislatures to recognize

                Right to refuse psychotropic drugs, while honoring rights of patients to refuse

                ECT and psychosurgery

                Concludes that Supreme Ct. has made it impossible for federal courts to provide

                adequate protection, leaving issue in hands of state courts




Am J Law Med

                1992  18 (4): 441-2

                no authors

                Patients’ rights: refusal of medication – in re: Jeffers



Behav Science Law

                1999  17 (5): 555-88

                Kress K

Therapeutic jurisprudence and the resolution of value conflicts: what we can realistically expect, in practice, in theory



Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law

                1984  12 (1): 65-74

                Hassenfeld IN, Grumet B

                Study of the right to refuse treatment



                1987  15 (1): 57-68

                Swartz MS

                What constitutes a psychiatric emergency: clinical and legal dimensions

                As informed consent is presumed / implied in medical emergencies, but limited

                Right for involuntarily committed patients to refuse treatment has been upheld,

                Absent finding of psychiatric emergency – it becomes essential to understand

                The issues involved in “defining / invoking” a psychiatric emergency.

                Article focuses on procedural and substantive issues in use of emergency exception

                In treatment refusal


                1987  15 (2): 163-9

                Hoge SK, Gutheil TG, Kaplan E

Right to refuse treatment under Rogers v. Commissioner: preliminary empirical findings and comparisons







Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law



1990 18 (2): 189-202

Beahrs JO

Legal duties of psychiatric patients



                1991  19 (3): 271-5

                Bursztajn H, chanowitz B, Kaplan E, et al

                Medical and judicial perceptions of the risks associated with use of antipsychotic



                Points out that in analysis of hypothetical case (risk of tardive as side effect),

                Judges and psychiatrists agreed upon theoretical acceptable risk; but differed

                Significantly in estimates of ACTUAL risk involved , and hence,

                Differed significantly in terms of decisions concerning treatment



1993     21 (4): 529-45  review

Ladds B, Convit A, Zito J, Vitrai J

Involuntary medication of pts who are incompetent to stand trial: a descriptive study of the NY experience with judicial review



                1995   23 (3): 343-52

                Hoge SK, Feucht-Haviar TC

                Long-term assenting psychiatric patients: decisional capacity and quality of care


                Ponts out that patients with more serious impairments of decisional capacity were more

                Likely to receive INAPPROPRIATE treatment with antipsychotic medication;

                Capable patient involvement in decision making is important in checking judgment of

                Physicians (concludes: remedial measures are NEEDED to protect long-term psych inpatients

                From receiving inappropriate treatment




Creighton Law Rev

                1980 Spring 13 (3): 795-841

                Clarke AM

Choice to refuse or withhold medical treatment: the emerging technology and medical-ethical consensus



Denver Law J

1981     58 (3): 567-608

Shavill NL

Patients’ rights vs. patients’ needs: right of the mentally ill to refuse treatment in Colorado



Detroit Coll Law Rev

                1976  1976 (1): 53-81

                Wade MD

                Right to refuse treatment: mental patients and the law




                1991 Jul-Aug  25 (7-8): 849-52

                Williams KG

                Univ of KY college of Law, Lexington

                Update on the right to refuse antipsychotic medication

                Washington vs. Harper :  right to refuse antipsychotic medication

                Protected under due process clause of 14th amendment




Harv Civ rights – Civil Lib Law Rev

                1984 Winter  19 (1): 21-60

                Furrow BR

                Public psychiatry and the right to refuse treatment: toward an effective damage remedy



Harv Law Rev

                2001 Dec  115 (2): 737-43

                No authors listed

                Criminal procedure: substantive due process – DC Circuit holds that government may forcibly

                Treat incompetent criminals with antipsychotic medication in order to render them competent to

stand trial.    US V. Weston 255 F. 3d 873 (DC Circ 2001), petition for cert. Filed (US Sept 5, 2001)      


[ My question: does this negate right of  drug-induced competent prisoners to refuse drugs that

                render them competent ? ]



Indiana Law J

2001     76 (4): 983-1000

Goff ML

Protecting our mentally ill: a critique of he role of Indiana state courts in protecting

Involuntarily committed mental patients’ right to refuse medication


Int J Law Psychiatry

                1986  8 (1): 83-94

                Brown P

                Psychiatric treatment refusal, patient competence, informed consent


                1990 13 (4): 361-85

                Hermann DH

Autonomy, self-determination, the right of involuntarily committed persons to refuse treatment, and the use of substituted judgment in medication decisions involving competent persons


                1993 Winter Spring  16 (1-2): 151-77

                Perlin ML

                Decoding right to refuse treatment law



                1994 Winter  17 (1): 99-117  review

                Winick BJ

                Right to refuse mental health treatment: therapeutic jurisprudence analysis




J Am Acad Psychiatry Law

                1997  25 (2): 191-6

                Billick SB, Della Bella P, Burgert W 3rd

                Competency to consent to hospitalization in the medical patient



J Contemp Health Law Policy


1990     Spring 7: 9-16

Wachtler S

Patient’s right to decline medical treatment: new york view



1994 Spring  10: 541-62

                Schmidtlein EA

                Riggins vs. Nevada: accused’s right to “just say no” to antipsychotic drugs ?




J Health Polit Policy Law

                1984 Summer  9 (2): 291-313

                Brown P

                right to refuse treatment and the movement for mental health reform





J Law Med Ethics

                1993 Fall Winter  21(3-4): 400-1

                Drescher GP

                Prisoner’s right to refuse treatment outweighs physician’s duty to treat



J Leg Med

                1985 Mar  6 (1): 107-38

                Kemna DJ

                Current status of institutionalized mental health patients’ right to refuse psychotropic drugs



J Psychiatry Law

                1984 Summer  12 (2): 231-55

                Sidley NT

                Right of involuntary patients in mental institutions to refuse drug treatment





Law Med Health Care

                1981 Sep  9 (4): 19-22, 38

                Cole R

                Patients’ right to refuse antipsychotic drugs



                1985  Apr  13 (2): 61-4

                Gutheil TG, Appelbaum PS

                Substituted judgment approach: difficulties, paradoxes in mental health settings


Law Soc Rev

                1987 21 (3): 447-85

                Milner N

                Right to refuse treatment: four case studies of legal mobilization




Leg Med

1985     117-79

Wettstein RM

Legal aspects of neuroleptic induced movement disorders




Loyola Los Angel Law Rev

                1987 Jun  20 (4): 1329-429

                Schwartz SJ, Costanzo CE

                Compelling treatment in the community: distorted doctrines and violated values




 Med Law

                1984  3 (1): 49-54

                Almeleh LB, Lurie A

The right of psychiatric patients to refuse treatment.  Analysis of professional responsibility and informed consent


                1987  6 (1): 45-68  review

                Zajc M

                Right to refuse antipsychotic medication: who decides ?



                1989  7 (5): 433-8

                Deutsch E

                The right not to be treated or to refuse treatment

                Corollary to right to refuse treatment is requirement for informed consent,

                Including duty of doctor to inform patient about possible consequences of

                Refusing treatment

                Article discusses several topics: Declaration of Lisbon re: patient right to

                Accept or refuse treatment after receiving adequate information;

                Also discusses  refusal in part,  living will,  refusal by parent / guardian, etc


Med Law


                1990  9 (5): 1122-30

                Hoffman BF

Assessing the competence of people to consent to medical treatment: a balance between law and medicine


                1992  11 (3-4): 249-67 Review

                Tavolaro KB

                Preventive outpatient civil commitment and right to refuse treatment: can

                Pragmatic realities and constitutional requirements be reconciled ?



Medicoleg News

1980    Apr 8 (2): 4-6, 16

Matthews DB

The right to refuse psychiatric medication


                1981 Feb  9 (1): 10-3

                Cole R

                Patient’s right to refuse antipsychotic drugs: the Court of Appeals decisoin in Rogers v Okin



NC Med J

                1983 Mar  44 (3): 108, 113

                Carter JH

                Some empirical findings on the right to refuse treatment



ND Law Rev

                1979  55(4): 563-72

                Goodman R

Mental health – restraint or treatment in institutions – right to refuse treatment based on right of privacy



New Engl Law Rev

                1976 Spring  11 (2): 509-40

                McGovern JJ

                Mental health – right to refuse drug therapy under “emergency restraint statutes”


Rev Fed Am Health Syst

                1988 May Jun  21 (3): 44, 46

                Root GL, Jr,  Scarano RM Jr

                The involuntarily confined mentally ill: can they refuse antipsychotic medication ?




Rutgers Law Rev

                1987  Winter Spring  39 (2-3): 339-76

                Brooks AD

                Right to refuse antipsychotic medications: law and policy




Seton Hall Law Rev

1981      11 (4):796-808

Housner AW

Constitutional law – mental health – state mental health patients’ right to refuse forcible administration of medication narrowly construed



Spec Law Dig Health Care Law

1992 Oct  (164): 9-30

Gasner MR

Financial penalties for failing to honor patient wishes to refuse treatment




Temple Law Q

                1975 Winter  48 (2): 354-83

                Levick M, Wapner A

                Advances in mental health: a case for the right to refuse treatment





Univ Miami Law Rev

                1989 Sep  44 (1): 1-103

                Winick BJ

                Right to refuse mental treatment: a First Amendment perspective




Villanova law Rev

                1982 Nov  28 (1): 101-48

                Rie MA
                Scope of involuntarily committed mental patient’s right to refuse treatment with psychotropic d        rugs; analysis of least restrictive alternative doctrine




William Mary Bill Rights J

                1993 Winter 2 (2):205-38

                Winick BJ

                New directions in the right to refuse mental health treatment: the implications of Riggins v Nevada








Medical / Psychiatric Journals





Am Enterp

                1990 Sep Oct  1 (5): 34-42

                Isaac RJ, Armat VC

                The right to be crazy



Am J Hosp Pharm

                1985 Dec  42 (12): 2709-14

                Brushwood DB, Fink JL 3rd

                Right to refuse treatment with psychotropic medication



Am J Orthopsychiatry

                1994 Apr  64 (2): 223-34 review

                Kapp MB

                Treatment and refusal rights in mental health: therapeutic justice and clinical accommodation



Am J Psychiatry

                1977 Dec  134 (12):  1356-60

                Dietz PE

                Social discrediting of psychiatry: protasis of legal disenfranchisement



                1980 Mar  137 (3): 332-9

                Ford MG

                The psychiatrist’s double bind: right to refuse medication

                Presents issues involved –

                Patient’s right to autonomy, constitutional rights,

                Even if that causes discomfort for patient and others……….

                Author believes that medications relieve mental disturbance,

                And that delaying medication (until adjudication of incompetence)

                Causes discomfort for everyone


                Same issue  -  1980 Mar  137 (3): 329-31

                Reiser SJ

                Refusing treatment for mental illness: historicl and ethical dimensions




                1980  Jun  137(6): 720-3

                Appelbaum PS, Gutheil TG

                Boston State Hospital Case: involuntary mind control,  constitution, and the right to rot

Authors contend that basic “misconceptions of psychopharmacology” led to questionable analysis of the constitutional issues at stake

                Believe that decision (Rogers vs. Commissioner ?)  will impair proper care of mentally ill


Am J Psychiatry



                1981 Aug  138 (8): 1075-7

                Lebegue B, Clark LD

                Incompetence to refuse treatment: a necessary condition for civil commitment

                Discusses US District Court case  reviewing AE  and RR v. Mitchell   --

                Utah statute according to which involuntarily committed have no right to refuse

                Treatment for the illness (condition) that led to the commitment.              

                Outlines Ct of Appeals for First Circuit  which upheld state’s use of parens patriae

                To force neuroleptics on committed patients


                1982 Feb  139 (2): 183-8

                Schultz S

                Boston State Hospital case: conflict of civil liberties and true liberalism



                1983 Jun 140 (6): 715-9

                Mills MJ, Yesavage JA, Gutheil TG

                Continuing case law development in the right to refuse treatment



                1985 Jan  142(1): 58-62

                Brody EB

                Patients’ rights: a cultural challenge to Western psychiatry


                1985 Feb  142 (2): 213-6

                Gutheil TG

                Rogers v Commissioner: denouement of important right to refuse treatment case


                Note: Gutheil is pro-forced medication, and presents arguments why Rogers case

                “impedes good clinical care”



                1987  Aug  144(8): 1107-8

                Raskin DE

                Duty to protect



                1988 Apr  145 (4): 413-9

                Appelbaum PS

                The right to refuse treatment with antipsychotic medications

                Retrospect and prospect

                Argues that “right to refuse medication” is illogical, because it permits

                Patients to refuse treatment which would permit their “freedom to be restored”

                ( ??? ),  and that “refusing patients almost always receive treatment in the end.”

                [ no pun intended]

                Appelbaum argues that “power to commit” should carry with it an equivalent

                “power to treat”



                1991 Nov  148 (11): 1621-3

                no authors listed

                effects of involuntary medication


Am J Psychiatry


                1997 Sep  154 (9): 1302-4

                Dixon L, Weiden P, Torres M, Lehman A

                Assertive community treatment and medication compliance in the homeless mentally ill

                Discussed high percentage of homeless (discharged) who go OFF their medications.

                Authors of article seek to emphasize that aggressive community treatment programs are successful

                In promoting “compliance” with medications




Arch Gen Psychiatry

                1979 Mar  36 (3): 351-4

                Malmquist CP

                Can the committed patient refuse chemotherapy ?


                1984  Aug  41 (8): 811-5

                Schwartz HI, Appelbuam PS, Kaplan RD

                Clinical judgments in the decision to commit.  Psychiatric discretion and the law

                [ probably unfavorable article in re: right to refuse, given authorship ]



Aust NZ J psychiatry

                1984 Jun  18 (2): 146-55

                Mitchell R

                Squibb academic addres. Human rights: the case for the mentally ill



Br J Hosp Med

                1995 Sep 6-19  54(5): 222-7 review

                Opler LA, Klahr DM, Ramirez PM

                Insight and adherence to treatment in psychotic disorders




Bull Med Ethics

                2001 Feb (165): 13-6

                Csapody T

                The right to refuse treatment and blood transfusion



Clin Perinatol

                1996  Sep  23 (3): 563-71

                Paris JJ, Schreiber MD

                Physicians’ refusal to provide life-prolonging medical interventions

                How is physician to respond to requests for treatments believed by the

                Physician to be futile, ineffective, or inappropriate




                1994 Apr 15;  150 (8): 1323-6

                Nathanson JA

                When does a patient have a right to refuse lifesaving medical treatment ?




Hastings Cent Rep

                1980 Feb  10 (1): 21-2

                Annas GJ

                Refusing medication in mental hospitals


                1990 May Jun  20 (3): 28-30

                Annas GJ

                At law.  One flew over the Supreme Court



Health Matrix

                1986 Spring  4 (1): 3-18

                Buchwald W, Lazorishak K

                The right of patients in mental hospitals to refuse drug treatment

                Analysis of rights of pts to refuse, vs. state’s interest in compelling treatment.

                Provides model bill to establish procedural system to address issues

                Re: informed consent,  comptency, emergencies, etc.




Hosp Community Psychiatry

                1979 May  30 (5): 321-7

                Stone AA

                Informed consent: special problems for psychiatry

                Discusses complexities of informed consent in psychiatry, due to

                Questions of patient capacity to GIVE informed consent, as result

                Of their illness


                Same issue: pp 348-51

                Armstrong B

                Question of abuse: where staff and patient rights collide


                1980 Jun  31 (6): 385-96

                Roth LG

                Mental health commitment: state of the debate, 1980



1981    Apr  32 (4): 233

Roth LH

                Right to refuse treatment


                Same issue: pp 251-5

                Michels R

                Right to refuse treatment: ethical issues


                Same issue: pp 255-8

                No authors listed

                Refusing treatment in mental health institutions: values in conflict



                1987 Apr  38 (4): 350-2

                Pavlo AM, Bursztajn H, Gutheil TG, Levi LM

                Weighing religious beliefs in determining competence



Hosp community Psychiatry


                1990 Jul  41 (7): 749-55

                Geller JL

                Clinical guidelines for use of involuntary outpatient treatment


                Same issue:  1990  41 (7): 731-2

                Appelbuam PS

                Washington v Harper: prisoners’ rights to refuse antipsychotic medication



1992 Jul  43 (7): 752-3

No authors listed

Supreme Court rulings in two cases broaden legal protections for mentally ill criminal defendants


                1993 Jan  44 (1): 71-3

                Macpherson R, Double DB, Rowlands RP, Harrison DM

                Long term psychiatric patients’ understanding of neuroleptic medication



                1994   Apr  45(4): 355-8

                Kapp MB

                Implications of Patient Self-Determination Act for psychiatric practice

                Implications of Nancy Cruzan 1990 Supreme Court decision re:  advanced

                Directives, planning ahead in case of decisional incapacity.

                Implications for psychiatric practice in US



Hosp Health Serv Admin

1991     Spring  36 (1): 147-53

Moody C

Right to refuse medical treatment



Hosp Med Staff

                1982 May  11 (5): 16-21

                Reed GA, Hoffman WE Jr

                Antipsychotic drugs and involuntarily committed patients



Int J Health Serv

                1981  11 (4): 523-40

                Brown P

                Mental patients’ rights movement and mental health institutional change






J Clin Psychiatry


                1987  Sep  48 Suppl:  28-33

                Mills MJ, Eth S

                Legal liability with psychotropic drug use: extrapyramidal syndromes and TD



1999     60 Suppl  19: 59-65

Fitzgerald WL Jr

Legal and ethical considerations in the treatment of psychosis

Professional ethics in decision making:  principles model in mental

Illness – beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, utility, justice


                1999 60 Suppl 19: 3-4

                Lehman AF

                Introduction : antipsychotic agents – clinical, economic, legal considerations in treatment

                of psychosis



                2000  61 Suppl 4:  45-57 review

                Slovenko R

                Update on legal issues associated with tardive dyskinesia




J Ky Med Assoc

                1999 Sep  97 (9): 423-8

                Harris MR

                Right to refuse psychiatric treatment in KY


J Med Phil

                1992 Dec 17 (6): 647-64

                Practicing medicine, fiduciary trust privacy, public moral interloping after Cruzan




J Nerv Ment Dis

                1995 Apr  183 (4): 193-4

                Brody EB

                The humanity of psychotic persons and their rights



Perpsect Psychiatr Care

                1982 Spring  25 (3): 382-403

                Lasagna L

                Boston State Hospital case (Rogers v Okin): legal, ethical, and medical morass


                1985  23 (2): 45-68 review

                Feather RB

                The institutionalized mental health patient’s right to refuse psychotropic medication




Pract Midwife

                1998 Jun  1 (6): 7

                No authors listed

                High Court endorses women’s right to refuse treatment



Psychiatr Ann

                1977 May 7 (5): 50-51+

                Roth LH

                Involuntary civil commitment: right to treatment and right to refuse treatment



Psychiatr Clin North Am

                1983 Dec  6 (4): 539-49

                Perlin ML

                Recent developments in mental health law




Psychiatr Serv

                1998  Sep  49 (9): 1193-6

                Appelbaum BC, Appelbaum PS, Grisso T

                Competence to consent to voluntary psych hospitalization

                Test of standard proposed by APA



2000     Dec  51 (12): 1528-35

Mossman D, Lehrer DS

Conventional and atypical antipsychotics and the evolving standard of care.

Article makes the point that practitioners who continue to use “older” neuroleptics cannot be considered guilty of malpractice --  would be interesting to fully investigate reasoning applied,

In order to see if one could use the authors’ rationale to defend attaching a priority to non-pharmacological approaches to care


Psychol Rep

                1997 Jun  80 93 Pt 1): 809-10

                Todman M Jr, gordon-Leeds D, Taylor S

                Attitude toward medication and perceived competence among chronically psychotic patients




Soc Sci Med

1985      20 (6): 645-8

Perry C

A problem with refusing certain forms of psychiatric treatment

                Does drug-induced competent patient have the right to refuse

                The medical treatment which is necessary for continued competency ?



Soc Work

                1994 Mar  39 (2): 167-75

                Wilk RJ

                Are the rights of people with mental illness still important ?