Is the Evidence Strong Enough to Warrant Long-Term Antipsychotic Use in
Compulsory Outpatient Treatment? by Shawn S. Barnes, M.D., and Nicolas
Badre, M.D., Psychiatric Services 67:7 (2016).
Effect of increased
compulsion on readmission to hospital or disengagement from community
services for patients with psychosis: follow-up of a cohort from the OCTET
trial, by Tom Burns, Ksenija Yeeles, Constantinos Koshiaris, Maria
Vazquez-Montes, Andrew Molodynski, Stephen Puntis, Francis Vergunst,
Alexandra Forrest, Amy Mitchell, Kiki Burns, Jorun Rugkåsa, The Lancet,
October, 2015, Vol 2: 881-890. "The findings from our 36-month
follow-up support our original findings that CTOs do not provide patient
benefits, and the continued high level of their use should be reviewed."
Rosenthal Testimony to Alameda County Board of Supervisors, February 21,
Community treatment orders for patients
with psychosis (OCTET): a randomised controlled trial, by Tom Burns,
Jorun Rugkåsa, Andrew Molodynski, John Dawson, Ksenija Yeeles, Maria
Vazquez-Montes, Merryn Voysey, Julia Sinclair, and Stefan Priebe, The
Lancet, Vol 381 (2013)
Evidence Regarding OutPatient Commitment, by
Toby T. Watson, Psy.D.
relationship between voluntary and involuntary outpatient commitment
programs An Assessment of the Scientific Research on OPC Implementation,
by Jasenn Zaejian, Ph.D. November 18, 2011.
International experiences of using
community treatment orders, by the Institute of Psychiatry at the
Maudsley (UK), March 2007. This study, which says it is the most
comprehensive and thorough review of outpatient commitment, concluded "it is
not possible to state whether community treatments orders (CTOs) are
beneficial or harmful to patients."
Does compulsory or
supervised community treatment reduce 'revolving door' care? Legislation is
inconsistent with recent evidence, by Stephen Kisely and Leslie Anne
Campbell, British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 373-374 (2007)
Kisely S, Campbell LA, Preston N.
Compulsory community and involuntary outpatient
treatment for people with severe mental disorders. The Cochrane Database
of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004408.pub2. DOI:
10.1002/14651858.CD004408.pub2. This study found little beneficial
effect: "In terms of numbers needed to treat, it would take 85 OPC orders to
prevent one readmission, 27 to prevent one episode of homelessness and 238
to prevent one arrest.
Effectiveness of Involuntary Outpatient Treatment Empirical Evidence and the
Experience of Eight States, by M. Susan Ridgely Randy Borum John
Petrila, The Rand Corporation, 2001.
Assessing the New York City
Involuntary Outpatient Commitment Pilot Program, by Henry J. Steadman,
Ph.D., Kostas Gounis, Ph.D., Deborah Dennis, M.A., Kim Hopper, Ph.D., Brenda
Roche, M.P.H., Marvin Swartz, M.D. and Pamela Clark Robbins, B.A.,
Psychiatric Services, Vol 52. No. 3 (2001)
Opening Pandora’s Box:
The Practical and Legal Dangers of Involuntary Outpatient Commitment, by
Michael Allen, J.D. Vicki Fox Smith, Psychiatric Services, Vol 52,
No. 3 (2001).
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