Law Project for Psychiatric Rights: PsychRights  


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Electroshock Doctors of Deception: What They Don't Want You to Know About Shock Treatment

  • Doctors of Deception: What they Don't Want You to Know About Shock Treatment, by Linda Andre, Rutgers University Press, 2009.
  • Review by Dr. Stefan Kruszewski in the International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine (2009) 171-173.
  • ECT Resources Center from Peter R. Breggin M.D.
  • The Truth About Electroshock pamphlet.
  • International Campaign to Ban Electroshock (ICBE).
  • PsychRights and Committee for Truth in Psychiatry submission to FDA opposing reclassification of electroshock machines, March 25, 2016.
  • The Utmost Discretion: How Presumed Prudence Leaves Children Susceptible to Electroshock, by Cheryl van Daalen-Smith, Simon Adam, Peter Breggin, and Brenda A. LeFrancois, Children & Society VOLUME 28, (2014) pp. 205–217.
  • January 24, 2011, PsychRights letter to the Food and Drug Administration, re: Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0585-0001, Reclassification of Electroshock Machines.
  • Electroconvulsive therapy reduces frontal cortical connectivity in severe depressive disorder, by Jennifer S. Perrina, Susanne Merz, Daniel M. Bennett, James Currie, Douglas J. Steele, Ian C. Reid, and Christian Schwarzbauer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 2012.
  • FDA Executive Summary Prepared for the January 27-28, 2011 meeting of the Neurological Devices Panel Meeting to Discuss the Classification of Electroconvulsive Therapy Devices (ECT)
  • The effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy:: A literature review, by John Read and Richard Bentall, epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 19: 4 (2010).
  • The FDA Should Test Safety of ECT Machines, by Peter R. Breggin, International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 22:89-92 (2010).ECT Justice
  • The Cognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Community Settings, Harold A Sackeim, Joan Prudic, Rice Fuller, John Keilp, Philip W Lavori and Mark Olfson, Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) 32, 244–254.  This study, which it says is the first of its kind despite the long-standing controversy over the brain damage caused by Electroshock found that it does indeed cause cognitive deficits.  "This study provides the first evidence in a large, prospective sample that adverse cognitive effects can persist for an extended period, and that they characterize routine treatment with ECT in community settings,"
  • Electroshock: scientific, ethical, and political issues, by Peter R. Breggin, M.D., International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 11 (1998) 5–40 5 IOS Press
  • Electroshock Quotationary, June 2006, by Leonard Roy Frank.
  • Medical Accountability Network's January 26, 2006, letter to Seton.
  • Memory and cognitive effects of ECT: informing and assessing patients, by Harold Robertson & Robin Pryor, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2006), vol. 12, 228–238
  • There are links to many studies on Electroshock at http://www.ect.org/resources/studies.html.
  • Cognitive rehabilitation: assessment and treatment of persistent memory impairments following ECT, Maeve A. Mangaoang & Jim V. Lucey, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment vol 13, 90-100 (2007).
  • All-cause mortality among recipients of electroconvulsive therapy, by Trine Munk-Olsen, Thomas Munk Laursen, Poul Videbech, Preben Bo Mortensen and Raben Rosenberg, British Journal of Psychiatry, 190: 435-439 (2007).
  • Electroshock as a Form of Violence Against Women, by Bonnie Burstow, Violence Against Women, Val. 12, No. 4: 372-392 (2006)
  • Eliciting users' views of ECT in two mental health trusts with a user-designed questionnaire, by Michael Philpot, Cath Collins, Premila Trefeci, Adrian Treloar, Simon Gallacher, & Diana Rose, Journal of Mental Health, 12(4): 403-413 (2004).
  • December, 2003, Committee for Truth in Psychiatry (CTIP) Petition to Maintain the ECT Device in Class III.
  •  Effectiveness of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Community Settings, by Joan Prudic, Mark Olfson, Steven C. Marcus, Rice B. Fuller, and Harold A. Sackeim, Biological Psychiatry, 44-301-312 (2004).
  • Linda Andre's Bibliography on Electroshock.
  • Patients' perspectives on electroconvulsivetherapy: systematic review, by Bindman Diana Rose, Pete Fleischmann, Til Wykes, Morven Leese and Jonathan, British Medical Journal, 326.7403.1363, 2003;326;1363
  • The Brain Changes Associated with Electrical Shock Treatment: A Critical Review, by Bernard J. Alpers, MD, Lancet, 66 (1946), 363-369.
  • Autobiographical Amnesia with ECT: An Analysis of the Roles of Stimulus Wave Form, Electrode Placement, Stimulus Energy, and Seizure Length, Walter F. Daniel, Richard D. Weiner, and Herbert F. Crovitz, Received April 19, 1982, Revised July 24,1982, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 18, No.1, 1983. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AAECTARSWFEPSESL.pdf
  • Acetylcholine and Neuronal Activity,  I. Cholinesterase Patterns and Acetylcholine in the Cerebrospinal Fluids of Patients with Craniocerebral Trauma, by Donald B. Tower and Donald McEachern, Canadian Journal of Research. Vol. 27, Sec. E. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AcetylcholineNeuronalActvty.pdf
  • A Controlled Comparison of Simulated and Real ECT, by J. Lambourn and D. Gill, British Medical Journal, Volume 282, 31 January 1981. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/ACntrlldCmprsnSmltdRlECT.pdf
  • Acute memory impairment following electroconvulsive therapy, by W.F. Daniel and H.F. Crovitz, Veterans Administration Hospital (Medical Director: B.F. Brown), Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A., Acta psychiatr. Scand. 1983:67:1-7. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AcuteMmryImprmntFllwgECT.pdf
  • Chapter IV: Adverse Effects of ECT, Task Force Report 14, Electroconvulsive Therapy. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AdverseEffectsofECT.pdf
  • Clinical and Research Reports, Table 1. Age and Serum Cholesterol Levels of 192 Depressed and Normal Subjects, Am J Psychiatry 140:7, July 1983 http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AgrnlcytssAasctdwithAmxpn.pdf
  • The America Journal of the Medical Sciences, by E.B. Krumbhaar, M.D., Editor, Richard A. Kern, M.D., Wiliam C. Stadie, M.D., Assistant Editors.  New Series, Vol. 204. Lea & Febiger Philadelphia 1942. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AmrcnJrnlMdclScncs1942.pdf
  • Fear Reactions in Patients Receiving Electroshock Treatment and the Law of Initial Value, B.J. Bolin, Ph.D., Lexington, KY, American Journal of Psycholtherapy, Official Organ of the Association for the Advancement of Psychotherapy, by Stanley Lesse, M.D., Editor, Volume XXI, 1967. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AmrcnJrnlofPsychotherapy1967.pdf
  • An Institutional Program for Committed Sex Deviants, by Bernard A. Cruvant, M.D., Milton Meltzer, M.D., and Francis J. Tartaglino, M.D., Washington, D.C., http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/AnInstnlPrgrmCmmttdSxDvnts.pdf
  • Changes in the Brain After Electrically Induced Convulsions In Cats, by Bernard J. Alpers, M.D. and Joseph Hughes, M.D., Philadelphia, Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, Editorial Board, Tracy J. Putnam, Chief Editor, New York, Louis Casamajor, New York, S.W. Ranson, Chicago, Stanley Cobb, Boston, John Whitehorn, Baltimore, Adolf Meyer, Baltimore, Bernard J. Alpers, Philapelphia, Percival Bailey, Chicago, Wilder Penfield, Contributing Member, Montreal. Volume 47, 1942, Publishers American Medical Association, Chicago ILL. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/ArchvsNrlgyPsychtry1942.pdf
  • Times, April 89, p. 54, Readings and Reflections, by Frank J. Ayd, M.D. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/ArctclReadysReflctnsFAydApr89.pdf
  • An Eyewitness Account of the Discovery of Electroshock, by Ferdinando Accornero, Department of Nervous and Mental Diseases, University of Rome, Rome, Italy, Convulsive Therapy, 4(I):40-49, 1988 Raven Press, Ltd., New York. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/artclAnEyewitnessAcctDscvryECT.pdf
  • Blowing their Cover: Canadian victims take the CIA to court, by Anne Collins. http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/electroshock/PBregginCites/artclBlowngtheirCoverACollins.pdf
  • Canadian psychiatrists develop Beneficial Brain-Washing: Neurotics listen to long-playing records of their private fears under a new treatment called the “dynamic implant”, by Jacqueline Moore, http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclBnfclBrainWashingJMoore.pdf
  • Boosting Brain Activity From The Outside In: Stimulating the brain with magnetic fields in not only a useful research tool but can apparently a cognition and ease depression.  But exactly how it works is a bit of a mystery. 18 May 2001 Vol. 202, Science. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclBoostngBrainActvtyOutsdIn.pdf
  • Brainwashed compensated, by Stephen Bindman, Toronto Star, Southam News, Nov. 18, 1992. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclCanadaBrainwashingCompnsn.pdf
  • Canadian victims take the CIA to court, p. D1, Globe & Mail, October 1, 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclCanadanvctmsCIAcourtOct88.pdf
  • Canada Will Pay Guinea Pigs of 50’s: Unwitting Recipients of Drug and Shock Treatments to Receive $80,000 Each, by Clyde H. Farnsworth, The New York Times. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclCanadawillpaygineapigs50s.pdf
  • Depression and Electroshock, National Affairs, Newsweek, August 7, 1972. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclDprssnECTNationalAffairs.pdf
  • The Long Struggle of Linda, by Bob Ross, Staff Writer, The Province, Sunday, March 17, 1991, Vancouver, B.C. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclLMacdonald1991.pdf
  • Canadians’ lawsuit in CIA brainwashing to begin this week, by Don Weitz, The Toronto Star, May 9, 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclsCanadaCIAbrainwashng.pdf
  • A shameful payoff, by Don Weitz, The Toronto Star, Dec. 2, 1992.  Brainwash victims to get compensation, by Stephen Bindman, The Toronto Star, Nov. 18, 1992.  Cameron’s treatment best available at the time, by Dr. John M. Elder, Montreal Gazette, Feb. 8, 1993. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ArtclsCanadianBrainwashing.pdf
  • Drugs Tested by CIA on Mental Patients: Doucments Disclose Use in ’58 of LSD in Canadian Hospital, by Nicholas M. Horrock, New York Times, August 3, 1977. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclsCIAdrugtesting.pdf
  • Mulit-Monitored Electroconvulsive Therapy Held Safe, International Medical News Service, Clinical Psychiatry News, 4:6, June 1976, p.2. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclsClnclPsychtryNewsJun1976.pdf
  • Depression ‘Highly Treatable,’ doctors say, by Edward Edelson, New York Daily News, Houston Chronicle, December 28, 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclsECTdepressionTrtbl.pdf
  • The Fury of Shock Treatment A Patient’s View, by Elizabeth Wertz, The Washington Post/Potomac/December 10, 1972. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclTheFuryShockTrtmntPtntvw.pdf
  • Toronto public hearings on electroshock: Testimonies from ECT survivors – Review and content analysis, by Emmeline Froede and Steve Baldwin, School of Social Sciences, University of Teesside, UK, International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 12 (1999) 181-192 IOS Press. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclTorontoElectroshock.pdf
  • Wiswall Hospital: Shock Therapy Abuse, by Anita Harris, B.A.D., Vol. VII/No.46/Three Sections/116 pages, November 14, 1972. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/artclWiswallHospitalSTA1972.pdf
  • The B.E.S.T In The Treatment And Control Of Chronically Disturbed Mental Patients-A Preliminary Report, by James A. Brussel, M.D. and Jacob Schneider, M.D., Psy. Quart. Vol.25-p.55-64, Jan. 1951. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/BESTTrtmntCntrlChrnclyDstrbdMP.pdf
  • Biophysical Mechanisms of Cell Membrane Damage in Electical Shock, by Raphael C. Lee, M.D., Sc.D., John N. Aarsvold, Ph.D., Wei Chen, Ph.D., R. Dean Astumian, Ph.D., Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M.D., Kathleen M. Kelley, M.D., and Neil H. Pliskin, Ph.D., Seminars in Neurology-Volume 15, No. 4, December 1995. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/BphysclMchnsmCMDinElctrcShock.pdf
  • Brain Damage Info. Packet, 1-21. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/BrainDamageInfoPacket.pdf
  • Brain Damage From Nondominant ECT, by Peter R. Breggin, M.D., Bethesda, Md., Am J Psychiatry 143:10, October 1986, p1320-1. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/BrainDmgFromNndmnntECT.pdf
  • Brain Damage and Memory Loss From ECT, by Peter Sterling, Ph.D., Testimony prepared for the Standing Committee on Mental Health of the Assembly of the State of New York, October 5, 1978. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/BrnDmgandMmryLossfromECT1978.pdf
  • Can ECT Permanently Harm the Brain?, by Donald I. Templer and David M. Veleber, California School of Professional Psychology-Fresno, Clinical Neuropsychology/Volume IV, Number 2, pp. 62-66, 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CanECT%20Pemntlybeharmful.pdf
  • Cognitive Functioning and Degree of Psychosis in Schizophrenics given many Electroconvulsive Treatments, by Donald I. Templer, Carol F. Ruff, and Gloria Armstrong, Am J. Psychiatry (1973), 183, 441-3. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CgngtvFnctngDgrPsychsShz.pdf
  • Cognitive and Behavioral Consequences of Closed Head Injury, by Jerid M. Fisher, Ph.D., National Head Injury Foundation, Inc., Seminars in Neurology-Volume 5, Number 3, September 1985. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CgntvBhvrlCnsqncsClsdHdInjry.pdf
  • Editorial: The Cognitive Effects of ECT: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice, by Charles H. Kellner, M.D., Charleston, South Carolina, Convulsive Therapy, 12(3):133-135, 1996 Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CgntvEffctsECTBrdggGpBtnRsrhCP.pdf
  • Cognitive Functioning in Depressed Geriatric Patients With a History of ECT, by Helen M. Pettinati, Ph.D., and Kathryn M. Bonner, Am J Psychiatry 141:1, January 1984. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CgntvFnctngDrpsdGrtrcPnts.pdf
  • Cholinergic Aspects of Convulsive Therapy, by Max Fink, M.D., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1966, Vol. 142, No.5. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ChlnrgcAspctsCnvlsvThrpy.pdf
  • Plaintiff’s Preliminary Pretrial Statement, Introduction, Mrs. David Orlikow, et al., v. USA, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Civil Action No. 80-3163 (JGP), September 12, 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/civilDOrlikowPretrialstatmnt.pdf
  • Combined Fluphenazine and ECT in Acute Schizophrenia, by Howard Alexander, M.D., Disease of the Nervous System, 1962. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CmbndFlpnznECTAcuteSchzrn.pdf
  • Comparison of Unilateral and Bilateral ECT: Evidence for Selective Memory Impairment, by D. Fromm-Auch, Brit. J. Psychiat. (1982), 141, 608-613. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CmprsnUnltrlBltrlECTEvdncSltMI.pdf
  • Concussing the Brain with Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy (ECT): An Appropriate Treatment for Depression and Suicidal Ideation?, by Boyles, G.J. (Nov. 1986) The Australian Clinical Psychologist, Vol. 18(2), 21-27. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CncssngBrainECTGJBoyles1986.pdf
  • Should ECT Be Prohibited?, Controversial Issues In Mental Health, Edited by Stuart A. Kirk, Susan D. Einbinder, by Allyn and Bacon 1994, http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CntrvslIssMntlHlthShldECTbePrh.pdf
  • Review Article: Convulsive Therapy – A Critical Appraisal of its Origins and Value, by Petr Skrabanek, Ph.D., Irish Medical Journal, June 1986, Volume 79, No. 6. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CnvlsvThrpyACAOIOAVlPSkrabanek.pdf
  • Controlled Trials of Electroconvulsive Therapy, by Timothy J. Crow and Eve C. Johnstone, Electroconvulsive Therapy: Clinical and Basic Research Issues, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1986. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ControlledTrialsECT.pdf
  • 84- Electroconvulsive Therapy, by David H. Avery, M.D., Current Psychiatric Therapy, by David L. Dunner, M.D., Outpatient Psychiatry Center for Anxiety and Depression 1993. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/CrntPsychtrcThrpyDDunner.pdf
  • Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Electroconvulsive Therapy (E.C.T.) and Simulated E.C.T. in Depressive Illness, by C.P.L. Freeman, J.V. Basson, and A. Crighton, The Lancet, April 8, 1978. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/DblblndCntrlldTrlECTSmltdDI.pdf
  • Differential Memory Complaints After Bilateral and Unilateral ECT, by Joanne Rosenberg, M.S., and Helen M. Pettinati, Ph.D., Am J Psychiatry 141:9, September 1984.
  • http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/DffrntlMmryCmplntsAftrBltrlUnl.pdf
  • Diseases of the Nervous System: A Practical Journal on Psychiatry and Neurology, Experimental Studies of the Electroshock Process, Max Fink, M.D., Robert L. Kahn, Ph.D., and Martin A. Green, M.D., National Medicine, March 1958. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/DiseaseoftheNervousSystem1958.pdf
  • The Danger of Various Types of Medication During Electric Convulsive Therapy, The American Journal of Psychiatry. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/DngrsVrsTypsMdctnDrngECT.pdf
  • Disabling the Brain with Electroshock, by Peter Roger Breggin, Divergent Views in Psychiatry, M. Dongier and E. Wittkower, Hagerstown, Md., 1981. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/DsblgtheBrainwithElectrshock.pdf
  • Distinct memory impairments following electroconvulsive therapy and imipramine, by Avraham Calev, Edna Ben-Tzvi, Baruch Shapira, Heinz Drexler, Refael Carasso, and Bernard Lerer, From the Jerusalem Mental Health Center-Ezrat-Nashim Hospital, Jerusalem and Bar-Ilan Unversity, Ramat Gan, Israel, Psychological Medicine, 1989, 19, 111-119. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/DstnctMmryImpmntFlwgECTImpmn.pdf
  • Evaluation of the Central Nervous System Risks of ECT, by Richard D. Weiner, M.D., Ph.D., Helen J. Rogers, Ph.D., Jonathan Davidson, M.B., M.R.C. Psych., and Robert D. Miller, M.D., Ph.D., Psychopharmacology Bulletin: Vol. 18, No. 1, January 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTAcuteOrgncBrnSyndrome.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy: Report of the Task Force on Electroconvulsive Therapy of the American Psychiatric Association, by Fred H. Frankel, M.B.Ch.B., T.George Bidder, M.D., Max Fink, M.D., Michel R. Mandel, M.D., Iver F. Small, M.D., George J. Wayne, Ph.D., M.D., Larry R. Squire, Ph.D., Consultant, Edward N. Dutton, M.D., Falk Fellow, Lee Gurel, Ph.D., Staff Liaison, May 1978, APA: Task Force Report 14. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTAmrcnPsychtrcAssc.pdf
  • ECT As A Form of Restraint, by J.J. Jeffries, M.B. and V.M. Rakoff, M.B., Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 28, December 1983. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTasaformofRestraint1983.pdf
  • ECT-Ban Controversy, by Peter R. Breggin, M.D., Bethesda, Md., Clinical Psychiatry News, March, 1983. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTBanControversy.pdf
  • ECT Benefit Outweighs Risk in Most Cases, by Dr. Abrams, Clinical Psychiatry News, June 1984. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTBnftOutwghsRskMostCases1984.pdf
  • Cognitive Functioning and Degree of Psychosis in Schizophrenics given many Electroconvulsive Treatments, by Donald I. Templer, Carol F. Ruff, and Gloria Armstrong, Brit. J. Psychiat. (1973), 123, 441-3. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTBrainDamage.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Shock and Brain Muscarinic Receptors: Relationship to Anterograde Amnesia, by B. Lerer, M. Stanley, I. McIntyre, and H. Altman, Pergamon Press, Life Sciences, Vol. 35, pp.2659-2664, October 16, 1984. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTBrainMscrncRcptrsRltnshpAA.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy: Clinical and Basic Research Issues, by Sidney Malitz and Harold A. Sackeim, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 462, 1986. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTClinicalBasicRsrchIssues.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy and Complaints of Memory Dysfunction: A Prospective Three-Year Follow-up Study, by Larry R. Squire and Pamela C. Slater, Brit. J. Psychiat. (1983) 142, 1-8. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTCmplntsMmryDysfctnAPTFS.pdf
  • ECT: Controversies and Consensus, Massachusetts General Hospital Newsletter, Biological Therapies in Psychiatry, Volume 8, Number 8, August 1985. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTcntrvssandcnsnssAug1985.pdf
  • ECT Death Chronology (Additions to “Chronology” in History of Shock Treatment, 1978), by Leonard Roy Frank, 28 March 1995. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTDeathChronology1978.pdf
  • ECT Hearing Testimony 11/27/90, by Wade Hudson. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECThearingWHudsonTestimony.pdf
  • ECT: III: Enduring Cognitive Defecits?, by D. Weeks, C.P.L. Freeman and R.E. Kendell, Brit. J. Psychiat. (1980), 137, 26-37. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTIIIEndrgCgntvDfcts1980.pdf
  • ECT: II: Patients who Complain, by C.P.L. Freeman, D. Weeks, and R.E. Kendell, Brit. J. Psychiat. (1980), 137, 17-25. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTIIPatientswhoComplain.pdf
  • ECT-Induced Hyperactive Delirium and Brain Laterality, by Walter F. Daniel, B.A., Durham, N.C., Letters to the Editor, Am J Psychiatry 142:4, April 1985. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTIndcdHyprctvDlrmBrnLtrlty.pdf
  • ECT Info. Packet, 1-24, http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTInfoPacket.pdf
  • ECT in Pregnancy, Lothar B. Kalinowsey, M.D., New York, N.Y., Letter to the Editor, Am J Psychiatry 141:12, December 1984. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTinPregnancy.pdf
  • ECT: I. Patients’ Experiences and Attitudes, by C.P.L. Freeman and R.E. Kendell, Brit. J. Psychiat. (1980), 137, 8-16. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTIPtntsExprncsAttds1980.pdf
  • ECT: Is It Unsafe and Ineffective?, by Edward M. Opton, Jr., Ph.D., J.D., 1985 Concensus Conference. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTisitUnsafeandIneffective1.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy and Its Effect on Memory, Abstract of Frith CD, Stevens M, Johnstone EC, Deakin JFW, Lawler P, Crow TJ: Effects of ECT and depression on various aspects of memory.  Brit. J Psychiatry 142:610-617, 1983. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTitsEffectsonMemory.pdf
  • Refline, Frith CD; Stevens M: JOhnstone EC; Deakin JF; and others.  Effects of ECT and depression on various aspects of memory, Br J Psychiatry 1983, Jun; 142:610-7. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTMemoryLossRefline.pdf
  • ECT and Memory: Brief Pulse Versus Sine Wave, by Larry R. Squire, Ph.D., and Joyce A. Zouzounis, M.S., Am J Psychiatry 143:5, May 1986. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTMmryBrfPlsVrssSnWv.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy and Memory Dysfunction: Is There Evidence for Prolonged Defects?, by John R. Taylor, Rachel Tompkins, Renee Demers, and Dale Anderson, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 17, No. 10, 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTMmryDysfnctnEvdncePrlngdDfc.pdf
  • ECT and non-memory cognition: A review, by Avraham Calev, Elizabeth A. Gaudino, Nancy K. Squires, Ianis M. Zervas, and Max Fink, British Journal of Clinical Psychology (1995), 34, 505-515. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTNnmmryCgntnARevw.pdf
  • Verbal Patients Who Say Little: A Syndrome of Nondominant-Hemisphere Deficits, by Frederic E. Oder, M.D., Psychiatric Times, January 15, 1994. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTNondominantDeficits.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Shock and Neurotransmitter Receptors: Implications for Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy, by Bernard Lerer, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 19, No.3, 1984. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTNrtrnsmttrRcptrsIMAAECT.pdf
  • Sindrome Di Annichilimento Da Elettroshock E Leucotomia Prefrontale, by Dott. Clemente Catalano-Nobili, Dott. Giannetto Cerquetelli, Rassegua Di Studi Porchration. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTRegressiveAnltnSyndrmPfntlL.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy Second Edition, by Richard Abrams, M.D., Oxford University Press 1992. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTsecondEdtionRAbrams.pdf
  • ECT: shock, lies and psychiatry, Yvonne Jones and Steve Baldwin, CHANGES, June 1992.
  • http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTshockliespsychiatry.pdf
  • ECT: Sham Statistics, the Myth of Convulsive Therapy, and the Case for Consumer Misinformation, by Douglas G. Cameron, World Association of Electroshock Survivors, 1994 The Institute of Mind and Behavior, Inc.  The Journal of Mind and Behavior, Winter and Spring 1994, Volume 15, Number 1 and 2, pages 177-198. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTSSMCTCCMDouglasCameron.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy, The Self, and Family Relations, by Carol A.B. Warren, Research in the Socialogy of Health Care, Volume 7 , pages 283-300, 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTtheSelfandFamilyRelations.pdf
  • Electroshock Therapy Without Muscle Relaxants, J.M. Radzinski, M.D., Disease of the Nervous System, November 1967, Vol. 18. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ECTwithoutMsclRlxnts.pdf
  • The Effects of ECT Modifications on Autobiographical and Verbal Memory, Walter F. Daniel, Herbert F. Crovitz, Richard D. Weiner, and Helen J. Rogers, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 17, No. 8, 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EffctsECTMdfctnsAtbgclVrblMmry.pdf
  • The Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Memory of Autobiographical and Public Events, by Sarah H. Lisanby, MD, Jill H. Maddox, BA, Joan Prudic, MD, D.P. Devanand, MD, Harold A. Sackeim, PhD.  Arch Gen Psychiatry. June 2000;57:581-590. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EffctsECTMmryAtbgphclPlcEvnts.pdf
  • Effects of ECT upon Brain Electrical Activity, (Uncorrected Copy Not for Direct Quotation), by Richard D. Weiner, M.D., Ph.D., Helen J. Rogers, Ph.D., Jonathan R.T. Davidson, M.B., D.P.M., E. Michael Kahn, M.D., Presented at: International Conference on ECT: Clinical and Basic Research Issues, New York City, January 16-18, 1985. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EffctsECTUponBrnElectrclActvty.pdf
  • Effects of Stimulus Parameters on Cognitive Side Effects, by Richard D. Weiner, Helen J. Rogers, Jonathan R.T. Davidson and Larry R. Squire, Annals New York Academy of Sciences. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EffctsStmlsPrmtrsCgntvSdEffcts(2).pdf
  • The Effectiveness and Safety of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), by Ibrahim S. Turek, M.D. and Thomas E. Hanlon, Ph.D., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol 164. No.6, 1977. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EffctvnssSftyECT1977.pdf
  • Effect of Vasopressin on Memory Following Electroconvulsive Therapy, by Bernard Lerer, Tuviah Zabow, Neil Egnal, and Robert H. Belmaker, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 18, No.7, 1983. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EffctVsprssnMmryFllwgECT.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy- NIMH/NIH Consensus Conference, JAMA, October 18, 1985, Vol. 254, No. 15. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ElctrcnvlsvThrpyConsensusConf.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Theraphy, Report of the Task Force on Electroconvulsive Therapy of the American Psychiatric Association, by Fred H. Frankel, M.B.Ch.B., T. George Bidder, M.D., Max Fink, M.D., Michel R. Mandel, M.D., Iver F. Small, M.D., George J. Wayne, Ph.D., M.D., Larry R. Squire, Ph.D., Edward N. Dutton, M.D., Lee Gurel, Ph.D., American Psychiatric Association May 1978. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ElctrcvlsvThrpyMay1978.pdf
  • Changing Concepts Electroshock: key element in personality-changing therapy, Frontiers of Psychiatry, Nov. 15, 1972, Vol.2, No.18. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ElctrshkKeyElmntPrsnltychngThr.pdf
  • Electricity: A History of its use in the Treatment of Mental Illness in Britain During the Second Half of the 19th Century, by A.W. Beveridge and E.B. Renvoize, British Journal of Psychiatry (1988), 153, 157-162. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ElctyHistoryUseTrtmntBritain.pdf
  • Electric Shock Therapy Clinical, Biochemical and Morphologic Studies, by S. Katzenelbogen, M.D., A.K. Baur, M.D., and A.R.M. Coyne, M.D., Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 52: 323-6, October 1944. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ElectricShockTherapyCncBchmMSt.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive therapy: results in depressive illness from the Leicestershire trial, by S Brandon, P Cowley, C McDonald, P Neville, R Palmer, S Wellstood-Eason, British Medical Journal, Volume 288, January 7, 1984. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EltrcvlsvThrpyLeicestershireTr.pdf
  • Epileptic Brain Damage in Adolescent Baboons Following Seizures Induced By Allylglycine, by B.S. Meldrum, R.W. Horton and J.B. Brierley, Brain (1974) 97, 407-418. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/EplptcBrnDmgAdlscntsBbnsSIA.pdf
  • Early and Long-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Depression on Memory and Other Cognitive Functions, by Avraham Calev, D. Phil., Doran Nigal, M.A., Baruch Shapira, M.D., Nurith Tubi, M.A., Shella Chazan, M.A., Yoram Ben-Yehuda, B.A., Sol Kugelmass, Ph.D., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1991, Vol. 179, No.9. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ErlyLngtrmEffctsECTDprMmyOCFnc.pdf
  • Exacerbation of Organic Brain Disease By Electroconvulsive Treatment, by George W. Paulson, M.D., North Carolina Medical Journal, August 1967. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ExcrbtnOrgncBrnDisease.pdf
  • Factors Affecting Amnesia, Seizure Duration, and Efficacy in ECT, by Alexander L. Miller, M.D., Raymond A. Faber, M.D., John P. Hatch, Ph.D., and Harold E. Alexander, M.D., Am J Psychiatry 142:6, June 1985. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/FctrsAffctgAmnsSzrDrtnEffcyECT.pdf
  • Diseases of the Nervous System: Electric Shock Therapy-A Misnomer, by Ernest C. Miller, M.D., and Martha Kelly, Ph.D., From the Department of Psychiatry & Neurology, Tulane University, School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, Louisiana. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/FearofECTEltrcShkThrpyAMsnmr.pdf
  • Fifty Years Later Electroshock, by Russ Rymer, Hippocrates, March/April 1989. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/FftyyrsltrElectroshock.pdf
  • Fifty years of electroconvulsive therapy: Value undoubted, mode of action unknown, by Alison Linington, Registrar, Brian Harris, Consultant Psychiatrist, BMJ, Volume 297, 26 November 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/FiftyYrsECT1988.pdf
  • Former ECT Patients Urge That Procedure Be Abandoned, by Carl Sherman, Clinical Psychiatry News, Vol. 13, No.3. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/frmrECTptntsUTPBAbndndCSerman.pdf
  • Electroshock: key element in personality-changing therapy, Roche Report: Frontiers of Psychiatry, November 15, 1972, Vol. 2, No.19. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/FrontiersofPsychiatry1972.pdf
  • Humane Techniques in Electroconvulsive Therapy, by R.W. Hibbard, M.D., The West Virginia Medical Journal, November 1960, Vol. 56, No.11. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/HmnTchnqsinElctrcnvlsvThrpyRWH.pdf
  • Electro-convulsive Therapy, House of Commons Report, May 26, 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/HouseofCommonsReportMay1988.pdf
  • Hyponatremic Seizure Following ECT, by A.J.R. Finlayson, M.D., W.V.R. Vieweg, M.D., W.D. Wilkey, M.D., and A.J. Cooper, M.D., Can. J. Psychiatry Vol. 34, June 1989. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/HypntrmcSzrFllwgECTcasereport.pdf
  • Indications for Shock Treatment in Psychiatry, by Trygve Braatoy, M.D., Oslo, Norway, Am J Psychiatry, 104:573-5, March 1948. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/IndctnsShkTrtmntPsychtry.pdf
  • In Favor of Wider ECT Ban, by Sidney Sament, M.D., Easton, P.A., Clinical Psychiatry News, Vol. 11, No.3, March 1983. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/InFavoroftheECTBan.pdf
  • Intensified Electrical Convulsion Therapy: In The Treatment of Mental Disorders, by L.G.M. Page, R.J. Russell, April 17, 1948, The Lancet. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/IntnsfdECTTrtmntMntlDsrdrs.pdf
  • Intensive Therapy of the Psychoses in a University Hospital, by O.H. Arnold and H. Hoff, Current Psychiatric Therapies, 1961. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/IntnsvThrpyPsychssUnvstyHsptl.pdf
  • Electroshock with and without Barbiturate Anesthesia: A Study of Patient Preference, by P. Kenneth Huggins, M.D., Myron G. Sandifer, M.D., and William S. Pearson, M.D., Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 138, No.1, January 1964. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/JofNrvsMntlDiseaseCntsofvol138.pdf
  • Personality Factors in Behavioral Response to Electroshock Therapy, by Robert L. Kahn, Ph.D., and Max Fink, M.D., Journal of Neuropsychiatry, September-October 1959, Volume I, No.1. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/JournalNeuropsychiatry1959.pdf
  • Changes in Impersonal and Personal Memory Following Electro-Convulsive Therapy, by Donald R. Stieper, Meyer Williams, and Carl P. Duncan, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Volume VII, 1951. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/JrnlClinicalPsychology1951.pdf
  • Psychologic Effects of Electric Convulsive Treatments (III. Changes in Affective Disturbances), by Irving L. Janis, Ph.D., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. III, No. 5, May 1950, Series No. 821. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/JrnlNervousMentalDisease1950.pdf
  • Morphologic Changes in the Brain of Monkeys Following Convulsions Electrically Induced, by Armando Ferraro, M.D., Leon Rotzin, M.D., and Max Halfand, M.D., Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, Volume V, 1946. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/JrnlNrpthlgyExprmntNrlgy1946.pdf
  • V. Memory Loss Following Electric Convulsive Treatments, by Irving L. Janis, Journal of Personality, Volume XVII, September 1948-June, 1949. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/JrnlPrsnlty1948.pdf
  • Journal for The Theory of Social Behavior, Vol. 32, No.1, March 2002, Editor: Charles W. Smith. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/JrnlTheThryOfSocialBehaviour.pdf
  • Where is the justice in Kim Cambell’s decision?, by Geoffrey Stevens, The Toronto Star, Sunday, March 17, 1991. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/KCambellDecisionArctcle1991.pdf
  • Linda MacDonald v. Her Majesty the Queen, Code of Ethics of the Canadian Medical Association, 1956, at 16. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/LMacdonaldvHerMajestytheQueen.pdf
  • Long-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Upon Memory and Perceptual-Motor Performance, by Herbert Goldman, Frank E. Gomer, and Donald I. Templer, VA Hospital, Jefferson Barrocks, Mo. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/LngtermEffectsECTMmryPMtrPrfnc.pdf
  • Loss of Life Memory and the science of electroshock therapy, by Kelly Davis, VC Reporter, Ventura County’s News & Entertainment Weekly, December 6, 2001. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/LossofLifeMmryScncECT.pdf
  • Memory and Electroconvulsive Therapy, by Larry R. Squire, Ph.D., Letters to the Editor, AM J Psychiatry 139:9, September 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/LtrtotheEditorMmryECTSept1982.pdf
  • Mechanisms of Memory, by Larry R. Squire, Science, Vol. 232, 27 June 1986. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MchnsmsofMmryLSquire.pdf
  • Memory Functions as Affected by Electroconvulsive Therapy, by Larry R. Squire, Annals New York Academy of Sciences. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MemoryFnctnsAffctdbyECT.pdf
  • Memory Impairment in Electroconvulsive Therapy, International Medical News Service. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MemoryImpairmentECT.pdf
  • Multiple-Monitored Electroconvulsive Therapy, by Barry M. Maletzky, M.D., 1981. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MltplMntrdEltrcnvsvThrpy1981.pdf
  • Memory Complaint After Electroconvulsive Therapy: Assessment with a New Self-Rating Instrument, by Larry R. Squire, C. Douglas Wetzel, and Pamela C. Slater, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 14, No.5, 1979. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MmryCmplntAftrECTAssmntNSRI.pdf
  • Memory and Convulsive Stimulation: Effects of Stimulus Waveform, by Curt W. Spanis, Ph.D., and Larry R. Squire, Ph.D., Am J Psychiatry 138:9, September 1981. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MmryCnvlsvStmltnEffctsStmls.pdf
  • Memory Functions as Affected by ECT, by Larry R. Squire, University of California, School of Medicine. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MmryFnctnsAffctedECTLSquire.pdf
  • Medication and Physical Therapies: Memory Test Performance Under Three Different Waveforms of ECT for Depression, Warren EW, Groome DH., Br J Psychiatry 144:370-375, 1984. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/MmryTstPrfrmncUndr3DfrntWfmECT.pdf
  • Recent Memory Loss (produced by ECT) could be compared to erasing a tape recording, by Robert E. Arnot, September 1975, Disease of the Nervous System. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/NervousSystemQuoteSept1975.pdf
  • Unilateral ECT Minimizes Short-Term Memory Loss, by Dr. Taylor, Drs. Rachel Tompkins, Renee Demers, and Dale Anderson, Clinical Psychiatry News. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/NndmntUnltrlECTMnmzsSrtTrmMlss.pdf
  • Neurologic fragments. II. Remarks on anosognosia, confabulation, memory, and other topics; and an appendix on self-observation, C. Miller Fisher, MD, Neurology 1989; 39:127-132, Views & Reviews. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/NrlgcFrgmntsCMFisher.pdf
  • Neurologic Side Effects of Psychiatric Treatments, by R.J. Dolan, M.D., M.R.C. Psych., Seminars in Neurology-Volume 10, No.3, September 1990. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/NrlgcSdEffctsPsychtrcTrtmnts.pdf
  • Neuronal Loss Induced in Limbic Pathways by Kindling: Evidence for Induction of Hippocampal Sclerosis by Repeated Brief Seizures, by Jose E. Cavazos, Indranil Das, and Thomas P. Sutula, The Journal of Neuroscience, May 1994, 14(5): 3106-3121. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/NrnlLssIndcdLmbcPthwyKndlg.pdf
  • Neuropathologic Effects of ECT, by John Friedberg, M.D., Berkeley, Calif., Am J Psychiatry 138:8, August 1981, Letters to the Editor. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/NrphlgcEffctsECT1981.pdf
  • Neuropathology and Cognitive Dysfunction From ECT, by Peter R. Breggin, M.D., Psychopharmacology Bulletin, Vol. 22, No.2, p 476-479, 1986. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/NrpthlgyandCgntvDysfnctnECT.pdf
  • The Natural History of Acute Organic Mental Syndrome After Bilateral Electroconvulsive Therapy, by W.K. Summers, Eli Robins, and Theodore Reich, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 14, No.6, 1979. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ntrlhstryAOMSaftrBET1979.pdf
  • An organic psychosis associated with electroconvulsive therapy, by John R. Marshall, M.D., Ned G. Kalin, M.D., and Alice M. Tariot, M.D., Case Report 90 Center for Health Science University of Wisconsin at Madison, February 1980. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/OrgncpsychsassctdwithET.pdf
  • Peter Breggin’s Testimony, Outline of Remarks Before the FDA on the Reclassification of ECT Devices, Nov. 5, 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PeterBregginsTestimony1982.pdf
  • Paying for the past: A brainwashing victim seeks compensation, by Tim Powis, Maclean’s March 19, 1990. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PhnxRisingPBregginltr.pdf
  • Pharmacological, Convulsive and Other Somatic Treatments in Psychiatry, by Lothar B. Kalinowsky, M.D., The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry Second Edition. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PhrmclgclCnvlsvSmtcTrtmntsPsyc.pdf
  • Polydiurnal Electric Shock Treatment in Mental Disorders, by Edward A. Tyler, M.D. and Hans Lowenbach, M.D., South Carolina Medical Journal, September 1917. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PlydrnlShkTylerandLowenbach.pdf
  • Predictors of Retrograde Amnesia Following ECT, by Christina Sobin, Ph.D., Harold A. Sackeim, Ph.D., Joan Prudic, M.D., D.P. Devanand, M.D., Bobba J. Moody, M.S.W., and Martin C. McElhiney, M.A., Am J Psychiatry 152:7, July 1995. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PrdctrsRtrgdAmnsFlwgECT.pdf
  • Profound Regression Following Two Electroconvulsive Treatments, by Melvin J. Reinhart, M.D. and Mohammed Shafu, M.D., Canad. Psychiat. Ass. J. Vol.12 (1967). http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PrfndRegrsnFlwgTwoECT1967.pdf
  • Prolonged Epileptic Seizures in Prmates, Ischemic Cell Change and Its Relation to Ictal Physiological Events, by Brian S. Meldrum, MB, PhD, and James B. Brierley, MD, Carshalton, England, Arch Neurol/Vol.28, Jan. 1973. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PrlgdEplptcSzrsPrmts.pdf
  • Protest in Support of Allan Memorial Victims, by Dr. Bonnie Burstow and Don Weitz, August 25, 1986. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ProtestSupportAllanMmrlVctms.pdf
  • Brain Vulnerability and Brain Health, by Donald I. Templer, Preventable Brain Damage, 1992. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PrvntblBrnDmgBrnVlnbltyBrnHlth.pdf
  • Postictal Excitement Following Bilateral and Right-Unilateral ECT, by Harold A. Sackeim, Ph.D., Paolo Decina, M.D., Sidney Malitz, M.D., Nancy Hopkins, R.N., Stuart C. Yudofsky, M.D., and Isak Prohovnik, Ph.D., Clinical and Research Reports, Am J Psychiatry 140:10, October 1983. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PstclExctmntFlgBltrlRUnltrlECT.pdf
  • Psychic Driving: Dynamic Implant, by D. Ewen Cameron, M.D., Oct. 1957, Am J Psychiat. 112:7, 502-509. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PsychicDrivngDynamicImplant.pdf
  • Psychological Theories of E.C.T.: A Review, by Edgar Miller, Am J Psychiat. (1967), 113, 301-311. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PsychlgclThrsECTareviewEMiller.pdf
  • Psychiatry Essentials of Clinical Practice With Examination Questions, Answers, and Comments Second Edition, by Ian Gregory, M.D., F.R.C.P.(C), F.R.C. Psych., Donald J. Smeltzer, M.A., 1983, 8. Psychotherapeutic Drugs and Electrotherapy. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PsychtryEssntlsClnclPrctcEQAC.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy Clinical and Basic Research Issues, by Sidney Malitz and Harold A. Sackeim, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Volume 462. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PtntsExprncsAttdsECT.pdf
  • Patients’ Experiences of and Attitudes to Electroconvulsive Therapy, by C.P.L. Freeman and R.E. Kendell, Annals New York Academy of Sciences. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/PtntsExprncsAttdsECT1.pdf
  • Karen J. Aubrey v. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, et al., Health Care Providers, July 19, 1991, Baltimore, Maryland. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RatesatJohnsHopkinsHospital.pdf
  • Re “Compensation” to Canadian Brainwash Survivors, by Don Weitz, Psychiatric Survivor, The Toronto Star, Letters to the Editor Column, November 24, 1992. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ReCompensatnCanadianBWashSvrs.pdf
  • Regressive Convulsive Therapy and Lobotomy in the Treatment of Mental Disorders, by James L. Sagebiel, M.D., Disease of the Nervous System, 22:193-200, August 1961. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RegressiveCnvlsvThrpyLbtmyTrtm.pdf
  • “Regressive” Electroplexy in Schizophrenics, by Paul L. Weil, M.D., November 7, 1949, http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RegressiveElctplxySchizpncs.pdf
  • Regressive Electric Shock Therapy, Preliminary Report on 100 Cases, by Bernard c. Glueck, Jr., M.D., Harry Reiss, M.D., and Louis E. Bernard, M.D., Psychiatry 31, 117-136 (Jan.) 1957. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RegressiveElectrcShockThrpy.pdf
  • Regressive Shock Therapy in Schizophrenia, David Rothschild, M.D., Donald J. Van Gordon, M.D., and Anthony Varjabedian, M.D. , Disease of the Nervous System, 11:147-150, May 1951. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RegressiveShkThrpySchzphrn.pdf
  • Relationship of ethnic background, religion, diagnosis, memory, and other variables to presence of Shock “Therapy” History for a sample of hospitalized mental patients: Preliminary Investigation of the lasting effects of shock treatment on behavior, by Robert F. Morgan, Interamerican Journal of Psychology, Revista Interamericana De Psicologia, December 1967. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RevistaInteramericanaDePsicologia.pdf
  • Electroconvulsive Shock-Induced Impairment of Spatial Learning is Aggravated by Nifedipine, by Piotr Popik, Jacek Mamczarz, Jerzy Vetulani, Rapid Preliminary Communication, Pol. J. Pharmacol., 1993, 45, 185-190. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RpdPrlmnryCmmnctn1993.pdf
  • Retrograde Amnesia and Bilateral Electroconvulsive Therapy Long-term Follow-up, by Lary R. Squire, Ph.D., Pamela C. Slater, Patricia L. Miller, Arch Gen Psychiatry-Vol. 38, Jan 1981. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/RtrgrdAmnsBltrlECT1981.pdf
  • Seizures Terminable and Interminable with ECT, Prolonged ECT Seizures, by Richard D. Weiner, M.D., Ph.D., Michael R. Volow, M.D., Daniel T. Gianturco, M.D., and Jesse O. Cavenar, Jr., M.D., Am J Psychiatry 137:11, November 1980. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/SeizuresTrmblItnmblwithECT.pdf
  • Shock Treatment, Brain Damage, and Memory Loss: A Neurological Perspective, by John Friedberg, M.D., Am J Psychiatry 134:9, September 1977. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ShkTrmntBrnDmgMmryLossANP1.pdf
  • Part II-The Attitudes of Shock Therapists, by David Wilfred Abse and John A. Ewing, Journal Nervous and Mental Disease, 123:32-40, Jan 1956. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ShockDoctorsSadism.pdf
  • Shock “Treatment”: A Chronology of Psychiatric Abuse, by Leonard Roy Frank, October 31, 1994. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ShockTrtmntChrnlgyPsychtrcAbs.pdf
  • Small Differneces in Intraischemic Brain Temperature Critically Determine the Extent of Ischemic Neuronal Injury, by Raul Busto, W. Dalton Dietrich, Mordecai Y.-T. Globus, Isabel Valdes, Peritz Scheinberg, and Myron D. Ginsberg, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 7:729-738, 1987. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/SmlDffrncsIBTempCrtlyDtrmnEINI.pdf
  • Special Articles: Why Such Apprehension Over “Shock Treatment”?, by Herbert Pascoe, B.A., M.D., D. Psych., Canad. M. A. J. November 1, 1959, Vol. 81. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/SpclArtclsWhySchApprhnsnoverST.pdf
  • Short and Long-Term Cognitive Effects of ECT: Part II – Effects On Nonmemory Associated Cognitive Functions, by Trevor R.P. Price, M.D., Psychopharmacology Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 1, January 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/SrtLngtermCgntvEffctsECTPrice.pdf
  • Steroid Fails to Prevent Memory Loss After ECT, Dr. Luther Robinson. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/StrdFlsPrvntMmryLssAftrECT1.pdf
  • Systematic Factors and Epileptic Brain Damage Prolonged Seizures in Paralyzed, Artificially Ventilated Baboons, by Brian S. Meldrum, MB, PhD, Roger A Vigourous, MD, Morseille, France, James B. Brierley, MD, Carshalton, England, Arch Neurol/Vol. 29, Aug 1973. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/SystmtcFactrsEplptcBrnDmg.pdf
  • Seizure Threshold in Electroconvulsive Therapy: Effects of Sex, Age, Electrode Placement, and Number of Treatments, by Harold Sackeim, PhD, Paolo Decina, MD, Isak Prohovnik, PhD, Sidney Malitz, MD, Archives of General Psychiatry April 1987, Volume 44. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/SzrThrshldElctrcnvlsvThrpy1987.pdf
  • The American Journal of Psychiatry, by The American Psychiatric Association, Volume 106, 1949-1950. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheAmrcnJrnlPsychtry1949vol106.pdf
  • The Brain Changes Associated with Electrical Shock Treatment: A Critical Review, by Bernard J. Alpers, M.D., The Journal-Lancet, November 1946. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheBrainChngsECTAClinicalRevw.pdf
  • The Brain Changes in Electrically Induced Convulsions in the Human, by Bernard J. Alpers, M.D., and Joseph Hughes, M.D., Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 1942, Vol.I. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheBrnChngsECTIndcdCnvsnsHmn.pdf
  • The Cognitive Side Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy: Discussion of Part VI, by Stephanie Portnoy, Annals New York Academy of Sciences, p 352. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheCgntvSdEffctsECT.pdf
  • The Effects of Modifications on Autobiographical and Verbal Memory, by Walter F. Daniel, Herbert F. Crovitz, Richard D. Weiner, and Helen J. Rogers, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 17, No.8, 1982. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheEffctsECTMdfctnsAtbgrplVrbM.pdf
  • The Effects of Regressive ECT with Process Schizophrenics, by Luis G. Murillo, M.D., and John E. Enner, Jr. PhD., Am J Psychiatry 130:3, March 1973. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheEffectsRgrssvECTPrcssSchzns.pdf
  • The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, by J. McV. Hunt, University of Illinois, The American Psychological Association, Inc., Volume 46, 1951. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheJournalofAbnrmlSclPsychlgy.pdf
  • Challenging the Therapeutic State, Part II, by David Cohen, The Journal of Mind and Behavior, Special Edition, Vol. 15, No.1 Winter 1994. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheJrnlMindBhvr1994.pdf
  • Prolonged Memory Defects Following Electro-Therapy, by M.B. Brody, M.D., D.P.M., The Journal of Mental Science, by Authority of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association, G.W.T.H. Fleming, Vol. XC, July 1944. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheJrnlMntlHlthJuly1944.pdf
  • Psychologic Effects of Electric Convulsive Treatment, (II. Changes in Word Association Reactions), by Irving L. Janis, PhD., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. III, No.5, May 1950, Series No. 821. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheJrnlNrvsMntlDeseaseMay1950.pdf
  • The Application of Serial Angiography to Diagnosis of the Smallest Cerebral Angiomatous Malformations, Hans Peter Jensen, M.D., Joel Brumlik, M.D., and Benjamin Boshes, M.D., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 136, No.1, January 1963, Serial No. 962. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheJrnlofNrvsandMntlDisease.pdf
  • The Northwick Park Electroconvulsive Therapy Trial, by Eve C. Johnstone, P. Lawler, Marilyn Stevens, T.J. Crow, J.F.W. Dearin, C.D. Frith, K. Mcpherson, The Lancet, Saturday 20/27 December 1980. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheLancetDec1980.pdf
  • Seizures and Aspartame, by Donald J. Fishman, M.D., The Neurology Center Report, Volume 3, Number 3, Fall 1987. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheNeurologyCenterReport1987.pdf
  • The Onset and Rate of the Antidepressant Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Neglected Topic of Research, by Allan I.F. Scott and Lawrence J. Whalley, British Journal of Psychiatry (1993), 162, 725-732. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheOnsetRateAntdprntEffectECT.pdf
  • The Origins of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), by Norman S. Endler, Ph.D., F.R.S.C., Convulsive Therapy, 4(I):5-23, 1988. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheOriginsECTNEndler1988.pdf
  • The Psychical Experiences During the Shocks in Shock Therapy, by Isidor Silbermann, ECT-Brain Disability Hypothesis. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/ThePsychclExpncDrgShksShkThrpy.pdf
  • The Role of Fear in Electroconvulsive Treatment, by Evelyn Crumpton, PhD, Norman Q. Brill, MD, Samuel Eiduson, PhD, and Edward Geller, PhD., JNMD, V136, Jan. 1963. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheRoleofFearinElctrcvlsvTrmnt.pdf
  • The Structure of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union, by Edward Babayan, A Note on History, International Unversities Press, Inc. New York 1985. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheStrctrPsychtrySovietUnion.pdf
  • The Use of Shock Therapy in 305 Mental Hospitals, by Lawrence Kolb, M.D. and Victor H. Vogel, M.D., ECT: History, July 1942. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TheUseofShckThrpy305MntlHsptls.pdf
  • Transference and Countertransference in Somatic Therapies, by David Wilfred Abse, M.D., D.P.M., and John A. Ewing, M.D., D.P.M., Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, Vol. 123, p 32, January 1956. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TrnsfrncAndCntrTrnsfrncSmtTrps.pdf
  • Message to CTIP Members and Supporters, by Marilyn Rice, October 13, 1991. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/TruthinPsychiatryMRice.pdf
  • Shock Therapy It’s Back, The Washington Post, Health, Tuesday, September 24, 1996. http://www.psychrights.org/Research/Digest/Electroshock/PBregginCites/WAPostShockTherapy09241996.pdf

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