Law Project for Psychiatric Rights: PsychRights  


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AntiDepressants
SSRIs on YouTube

  • Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants: systematic review of trials in adult healthy volunteers, by Andreas Ø Bielefeldt, Pia B Danborg, and Peter C Gøtzsche, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine; 2016, Vol. 109(10) 381–392.
  • National Public Radio on Prozac: A case study of how the media presents the risks and benefits of antidrepressants, by Jonathan Leo, Ph.D, The Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 1471-7646/15/04236-16 (2015).
  • Suicidal risk from TADS study was higher than it first appeared, by Goran Hogberg, David O. Antonuccioc and David Healy, International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 27 (2015) 85–91.
  • Preterm Birth and Antidepressant Medication Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, by Krista F. Huybrechts, Reesha Shah Sanghani, Jerry Avorn, Adam C. Urato, Plos One, Vol 9, Issue 3 (2014).
  • Treating Depression With Antidepressants: Drug-Placebo Efficacy Debates Limit Broader Considerations, byMichael D. Yapko, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 55: 272–290 (2013).
  • Patient Online Report of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Induced Persistent Postwithdrawal Anxiety and Mood Disorders, by Carlotta Belaise , Alessia Gatti, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, and Guy Chouinard, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 81:386–388 (2012).
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and brain hemorrhage A meta-analysis, by Daniel G. Hackam, MD, PhD, FRCPC, and Marko Mrkobrada, MD, American Academy of Neurology, 79: 1862-1865 (2012)
  • Incident user cohort study of risk for gastrointestinal bleed and stroke in individuals with major depressive disorder treated with antidepressants, by Victor M Castro, Patience J Gallagher, Caitlin C Clements,Shawn N Murphy, Vivian S Gainer, Maurizio Fava, Jeffrey B Weilburg, Susanne E Churchill, Isaac S Kohane, Dan V Iosifescu, Jordan W Smoller, Roy H Perlis, British Medical Journal Open, BMJ Open 2012;2:e000544.
  • Relabeling the Medications We Call Antidepressants, by David Antonuccio and David Healy, Scientifica, Vol 2012, Article ID 965908 (2012)
  • Primum non nocere: an evolutionary analysis of whether antidepressants do more harm than good, by Paul W. Andrews, J. Anderson Thomson Jr., Ananda Amstadter, and Michael C. Neale, Frontiers of Evolutionary Psychology,Vol.3, Art.117 (2012)
  • Antidepressant-induced akathisia-related homicides associated with diminishing mutations in metabolizing genes of the CYP450 family, by Yolanda Lucire and Christopher Crotty, Pharmocogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Vol. 4, Iss. 1: 65-81 (2011)
  • Antidepressants and Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Review of the Literature and Researchers' Financial Associations with Industry, by Lisa Cosgrove, Ling Shi, David E. Creasey, Maria Anaya-McKivergan, Jessica A. Myers, Krista F. Huybrechts,  PLoS One, Vol. 4, Issue 6: e18210 (2011).
  • Antidepressant use and risk of adverse outcomes in older people: population based cohort study, by Carol Coupland, Paula Dhiman, Richard Morriss, Antony Arthur, and Julia Hippisley-Cox, British Medical Journal 343:d4551 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4551 (2011).
  • Blue again: perturbational effects of antidepressants suggest monoaminergic homeostasis in major depression, by Paul W. Andrews1, Susan G. Kornstein, Lisa J. Halberstadt, Charles O. Gardner, and Michael C. Neale, Frontiers of Evolutionary Psychology, July 2011, Vol., Art 159.
  • STAR*D: A Tale and Trail of Bias, by H. Edmund Pigott, PhD, Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, Vol 13. No. 1:6-28 (2011)
  • Efficacy and Effectiveness of Antidepressants: Current Status of Research, by H. Edmund Pigott, Allan M. Leventhal,  Gregory S. Alter, and John J. Boren, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 2010; 79:267-279.
  • The Risks Associated With Maternal Antidepressant Use During the Prenatal and Postnatal Stages of Development, by Jeanne M. Stolzer, PhD, Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 12, No. 2 (2010).
  • Adults With Mood Disorders Have an Increased Risk Profile for Cardiovascular Disease Within the First 2 Years of Treatment, by Valerie Taylor, MD, PhD; Margaret C McKinnon, PhD; Kathryn Macdonald, MD; Gurpreet Jaswal, BSc; Glenda M MacQueen, MD, PhD, The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 55, No 6, (2010).
  • Antidepressant Drug Effects and Depression Severity: A Patient-Level Meta-analysis, by Jay C. Fournier, MA; Robert J. DeRubeis, PhD; Steven D. Hollon, PhD; Sona Dimidjian, PhD; Jay D. Amsterdam, MD; Richard C. Shelton, MD; Jan Fawcett, MD. Journal of the Merican Medical Association, 2010;303(1):47-53
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Drugs: More Risks Than Benefits? by Joel M. Kauffman, Ph.D., Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Vol. 14, No. 1:7-12 (2009)
  • Army Suicides -- Plus ca change, c'est la meme chose, by Grace Jackson, February 10, 2009.
  • Persistence of Sexual Dysfunction Side Effects after Discontinuation of Antidepressant Medications: Emerging Evidence, by Audrey S. Bahrick, The Open Psychology Journal, I, 42-50 (2008)
  • Clinical trials and drug promotion: Selective reporting of study 329, by Jon N. Jureidini Leemon B. McHenry, and Peter R. Mansfield, International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 20 (2008) 73–81. 
  • Effectiveness of antidepressants: an evidence myth constructed from a thousand randomized trials? John PA Ioannidis, Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine, 2008, 3:14.
  • Treatment of Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder: Are Antidepressants Mood Destabilizers? American Journal of Psychiatry 165:3, 300-302 (2008)
  • Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, by Irving Kirsch1, Brett J. Deacon, Tania B. Huedo-Medina, Alan Scoboria, Thomas J. Moore, Blair T. Johnson, PLOS Medicine, Vol 5; Issue2: 260268 (2008).
  • Suicide rates in young men in England and Wales in the 21st century: time trend study, by Lucy Biddle, Anita Brock, Sara T. Brookes, and David Gunnell, British Medical Journal, February, 2008.
  • Sexual Side Effects of Antidepressant Medications: An Informed Consent Accountability Gap, by Audrey S. Bahrick and Mark M. Harris, Jounral of Contemporary Psychotherapy, DOI 10.1007/s10879-008-9094-0
  • Unsealed (except 9 pages) Joseph Glenmullen, MD, analysis of Paxil suicidality kept hidden by GlaxoSmithKline.
    Effectiveness Of Paroxetine In The Treatment Of Acute Major Depression In Adults: A Systematic Re-Examination Of Published And Unpublished Data From Randomized Trials, by Corrado Barbui MD, Toshiaki A. Furukawa MD, Andrea Cipriani MD, Canadian Medical Association Journal, CMAJ 2008;178(3):296-305 (2008).  This study concluded that among adults with moderate to severe major depression in the clinical trials we reviewed, paroxetine was not superior to placebo in terms of overall treatment effectiveness and acceptability.
  • The prospective Course of Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the STEP-BD, by Christopher D. Schneck, M.D.; David J. Miklowitz, Ph.D.; Sachiko Miyahara, M.S.; Mako Araga,; M.S. Stephen Wisniewski, Ph.D.; Laszlo Gyulai, M.D.; Michael H. Allen, M.D.; Michael E. Thase, M.D.; and Gary S. Sachs, M.D., American Journal of Psychiatry, 165:3, 370-377 (2008).  This study documents that antidepressants account for at least 75% of people diagnosed with rapid cycling bi-polar disorder.
  • Psychopharmacological treatment before suicide attempt among patients admitted to a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit, by Michele Raja, Antonella Azzoni, and Alexia E. Koukopoulos, Journal of Affective Disorders, 113 (2009) 37-44.
  • Selective Publication of Antidepressant Trials and Its Influence on Apparent Efficacy, by Erick H. Turner, M.D., Annette M. Matthews, M.D., Eftihia Linardatos, B.S., Robert A. Tell, L.C.S.W., and Robert Rosenthal, Ph.D, New England Journal of Medicine, 358;3 (January 2008).  This study found that 37 of 38 trials that the F.D.A. viewed as having positive results were published in journals, but only 14 of the 36 studies the FDA viewed as failed or unconvincing made it into journals and 11 of those “conveyed a positive outcome” that was not justified by the underlying F.D.A. review.
  • Persistent Sexual Dysfunction after Discontinuation of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, by Antonei Csoka, PhD, Audrey Bahrick, PhD, and Olli-Pekka Mehtonen, MD, Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2008;5:227–233
  •  Disability and its treatment in bipolar disorder, by N. Huxley, Bipolar Disorders 9 (2007):183-96. Harvard researchers observe that “prognosis for bipolar disorder was once considered relatively favorable, but contemporary findings suggest that disability and poor outcomes are prevalent.” They note that “neuropharmacological-neurotoxic factors” might be causing “cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder patients.”
  • Letters to the Editor on the link between the Black Box warnings and suicides, American Journal of Psychiatry, 164:12, 1907-1910 (2007)
  • Various Effects of Antidepressant Drugs on Bone Microarchitectecture, Mechanical Properties and Bone Remodeling, by N. Bonnet, P. Bernard, H. Beaupied, J.C. Bizot, and F. Trovero, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 221 (2007) 111–118. More evidence that SSRIs degrade bone structure.
  • Twelve-month outcome of adolescents with bipolar disorder following first hospitalization for a manic or mixed episode, by DelBello, M., American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (2007):582-90.
  • Inhibition of the Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine) Transporter Reduces Bone Accrual during Growth, by Stuart J. Warden, Alexander G. Robling, Megan S. Sanders, Michael M. Bliziotes, and Charles H. Turner, Endocrinology, 2005 Feb;146(2):685-93. SSRIs interfered with normal bone development in juvenile mice, raising serious concerns around SSRIs and skeletal development in children and adolescents.
  • Early Symptomatic Worsening During Treatment With Fluoxetine in Major Depressive Disorder: Prevalence and Implications, by  Cristina Cusin, M.D.; Maurizio Fava, M.D.; Jay D. Amsterdam, M.D.; Frederic M. Quitkin, M.D.; Frederick W. Reimherr, M.D.; Charles M. Beasley, Jr., M.D.; Jerrold F. Rosenbaum, M.D.; and Roy H. Pedis, M.D., Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2007;68;52-57.  This study concluded early clinical worsening is common and associated with a decreased likelihood of achieving remission.
  • A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Cognitive and Physical Symptoms During Long-Term Antidepressant Treatment, by Maurizio Fava, M.D., Lesley M. Graves, B.A., Franco Benazzi, M.D., Margaret J. Scalia, B.A., Dan V. Iosifescu, M.D., Jonathan E. Alpert, M.D., Ph.D., and George I. Papakostas, M.D., JClin Psychiatry 67:11, 1754-59, November 2006
  • Antidepressants and Driving Ability: Results From a Clinical Study, by Alexander Brunnauer, Ph.D.; Gerd Laux, M.D., Ph.D.; Elisabeth Geiger, M.S.; Michael Soyka, M.D.; and Hans-Jurgen Moller, M.D, J Clin Psychiatry 67:11 1776-81, November 2006.
  • Effectiveness of Adjunctive Antidepressant Treatment for Bipolar Depression, by Gary Sachs, MD, et.al. New England Journal of Medicine. April 28, 2007—Vol. 356, No. 14. Antidepressants, used along with Lithium, don't do anything to control depression in bipolar disorder.
  • Even more suicide attempts in clinical trials with paroxetine randomised against placebo, by Ivar Aursnes, Ingunn Fride Tvete, Jorund Gaasemyr, and Bent Natvig, BMC Psychiatry, 2006, 6:55.
  • Antidepressants and Violence: Problem: at the Interface of Medicine and Law, by David Healy, Andrew Herxheimer, and David B. Menkes, PLOS, September 2006, Volume 3, Issue 9, 372.
  • SSRI Antidepressants and Violence.
  • SSRI use during pregnancy is associated with fetal abnormalities, British Medical Journal, BMJ 2006;333:824 (21 October), doi:10.1136/bmj.333.7573.824-d.
  • The SSRI Trials in Children: Disturbing Implications for Academic Medicine, by Jonathan Leo, PhD, Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2006
  • May, 2006, Dear Health Care Professional Letter on Paxil warning of suicides.
  • Special Report: Court Filing Makes Public My Previously Suppressed Analysis of Paxil’s Effects, by Peter R. Breggin, MD, Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2006, 77-84.
  • Serotonin and depression: A disconnect between the advertisements and the scientific literature, by Jeffrey Lacasse and Jonathon Leo J (2005) ,  PLoS Med 2(12): e392.
  • Antidepressant Research from Grace E. Jackson, M.D., which went into her book "Rethinking Psychiatric Drugs: A Guide to Informed Consent," published in late July, 2005,
  • Efficacy of antidepressants in adults, by Joanna Moncrieff and Irving Kirsch, July 16, 2005, British Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7509.155 2005;331;155-157 BMJ, concluding SSRIs have no clinically meaningful advantage over placebo, there is little evidence to support claims they are more effective in more severe conditions, they have not been convincingly shown to affect the long term outcome of depression or suicide rates and given the doubt about their benefits and concern about their risks, current recommendations for prescribing antidepressants should be reconsidered.
  • FDA Public Health Advisory, Suicidality in Adults Being Treated with Antidepressant Medications, June 30, 2005.
  • Antidepressant drug use & the risk of suicide, by DAVID HEALY, & GRAHAM ALDRED in International Review of Psychiatry, June 2005; 17(3): 163–172.  After analyzing all clinical trials, it is concluded that SSRI use "gives rise to a relative risk of suicide on antidepressants over placebo of the order of a 2.0–2.5 times greater risk with treatment" and shows how this is true in spite of certain periods of declining over all suicide rate.
  • In its February 19, 2005, issue, the British Medical Journal (BMJ) published three articles about SSRI Antidepressants and suicide.
  • An Examination of Eli Lilly and Company's Contentions that the BMJ Prozac Documents were Never Missing and Have No Significance, by Dr. Peter Breggin, January 12, 2005.
  • November 11, 2004, letter from David Healy, MD, to the Medicines & Healthcare products Regulatory Agency regarding corruption in reporting the clinical trials for SSRIs (he calls them "manoeuvres").
  • Efficacy and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents, by Jon N Jureidini, Christopher J Doecke, Peter R Mansfield, Michelle M Haby, David B Menkes, Anne L Tonkin in the British Medical Journal, BMJ VOLUME 328 10 APRIL 2004 bmj.com.  This study concludes it is unlikely SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) have any major benefit. The study also concludes that because of the potential for harm, the magnitude of benefit is unlikely to be sufficient to justify risking those harms, so confidently recommending these drugs treatment option, let alone as first line treatment, would be inappropriate.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data, by Craig J Whittington, Tim Kendall, Peter Fonagy, David Cottrell, Andrew Cotgrove, Ellen Boddington, The Lancet (2004):1341-5.

  • Dr. David Healy's 2/19/2004 letter to the FDA. (5 MB) exhaustively details the research surrounding the problems with anti-depressants and children, finding that there have been almost 22,000 deaths caused by SSRIs .
  • Scientific American Mind, December 2004 Issue, Treating Depression: Pills or Talk?
  • February 18, 2004, Dr. Andrew Mosholder Report on Suicidality in Pediatric Clinical Trials with Paroxetine (Paxil) and other antidepressant drugs; Follow-up to 9/04/03 Consult. Based on Dr. Mosholder's review of previously unavailable data showing that the efficacy of pediatric use of SSRI antidepressants had not been established and they cause one additional serious suicide related event per 12 patient years of active treatment, he recommended a risk management strategy discouraging off-label (unapproved) pediatric use.
  • Antidepressants and public health in Iceland Time series analysis of national data, by Tomas Helgason, Helgi Tomasson and Tomas Zoega, British Journal of Psychiatry (2004), 104, 157-162. In this study it was found the huge increase in antidepressant use in Iceland did nothing to reduce the rate of depression.
  • Chronic Antidepressant Treatment Alters Serotonergic Regulation Of Gaba Transmission In Prefrontal Cortical Pyramidal Neurons, by P. Zhong And Z. Yan, Neuroscience 129 (2004) 65–73
  • Transcript of February 2, 2004, FDA meeting on SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitor antidepressants) and children suicides contains many first hand accounts of children committing suicide on SSRIs.
  • Background Comments for February 2, 2004 Meeting of Psychopharmacological Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC) and Pediatric Subcommittee of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee (Peds AC), by Thomas P. Laughren, M.D., Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, January 5, 2004. 
  • Lines of Evidence on the Risks of Suicide with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, by David Healy, M.D., Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 2003;72-71-79.  This study found that the long-suppressed data in the original clinical trials as well as epidemiological studies  indicated a dose dependent link for both agitation and suicidality.  The study concluded that the data indicate a possible doubling of the relative risk of both suicides and suicde attempts on SSRIs compared with the older anti-depressants and non-treatment.
  • Suicidality, violence and mania caused by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): A review and analysis, by Peter R. Breggin.  International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 16 (2003/2004) 31–49.  This paper shows that evidence from many sources confirms that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) commonly cause or exacerbate a wide range of abnormal mental and behavioral conditions. These adverse drug reactions include the following overlapping clinical phenomena: a stimulant profile that ranges from mild agitation to manic psychoses, agitated depression, obsessive preoccupations that are alien or uncharacteristic of the individual, and akathisia. Each of these reactions can worsen the individual’s mental condition and can result in suicidality, violence, and other forms of extreme abnormal behavior. Evidence for these reactions is found in clinical reports, controlled clinical trials, and epidemiological studies in children and adults. Recognition of these adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from the offending drugs can prevent misdiagnosis and the worsening of potentially severe iatrogenic disorders. These findings also have forensic application in criminal, malpractice, and product liability cases.
  • Serotonin syndrome: a brief review, Philippe Birmes, Dominique Coppin, Laurent Schmitt and Dominique Lauque, Canadian Medical Association Journal,--Journal de l'Association Médicale Canadienne, May 27, 2003, 168:11, talks about the symptoms and treatment of this anti-depressant caused problem: Major mental symptoms: confusion, elevated mood, coma or semicoma, Minor symptoms: agitation and nervousness, insomnia; Major Autonomic symptoms: fever, hyperhidrosis, Minor symptoms: tachycardia, tachypnea and dyspnea, diarrhea, low or high blood pressure; Major Neurological symptoms: myoclonus, tremors, chills, rigidity, hyperreflexia Minor symptoms: impaired co-ordination, mydriasis, akathisia
  • Drug Safety Research, Special Report: Antidepressant Drugs and Suicidal/Aggressive Behaviors  This drug safety report documents higher than expected numbers of suicidal and aggressive behaviors observed in some clinical trials of antidepressants in children also can be seen in spontaneous adverse event data, and add substantial additional evidence to the case. The data show that suicidal/aggressive behaviors are reported in both adults and children, but more than twice as often in children. Finally, while two drugs now carry warnings about this risk, similar risks were reported for the four drugs without warnings. Findings from these adverse event data should be interpreted in context with other scientific evidence, and with consideration of the limitations outlined below.
  • SSRI Antidepressant Withdrawal Syndrome in Newborns. by by Elizabeth Rudy, D.V.M., R.Ph., Drug Therapy Topics, 2002, Vol. 31 No. 2 - Feb. 2002
  • Canadian Medical Journal Article about Glaxo witholding detrimental data about Paxil and kids.  This Canadian Medical Journal article discusses the suppression of data about the harm caused by SSRI's, including an internal document advised staff at the international drug giant GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) to withhold clinical trial findings in 1998 that indicated the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil in North America and Seroxat in the UK) had no beneficial effect in treating adolescents.
  • The Emperor's New Drugs: An Analysis of Antidepressant Medication Data Submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, by Irving Kirsch, University of Connecticut, Thomas J. Moore, The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Alan Scoboria and Sarah S. Nicholls, University of Connecticut, Prevention & Treatment, Volume 5, Article 23, posted July 15, 2002.
  • The Antidepressant Debate, by Joanna Moncrieff, British Journal of Psychiatry, 2002; 180, 193-4.
  • Why Has the Antidepressant Era Not Shown a Significant Drop in Suicide Rates? by H.M. van Praag, Crisis2002 Volume 23(2):77-82.
  • The Emperor's New Drugs: An Analysis of Antidepressant Medication Data Submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Prevention & Treatment, Volume 5, Article 23, posted July 15, 2002.  This is a series of articles on the subject in Prevention and Treatment, a peer reviewed journal of the American Psychological Association.
  • Fatal toxicity of serotoninergic and other antidepressant drugs: analysis of United Kingdom mortality data, by Nicholas A Buckley, Peter R McManus BMJ Vol. 325 7 Dec.  2002; 1332-3. 
  • Treatment of depression related to recurrence: 10-year follow-up in general practice, by E M. van Weel-Baumgarten MD's , W. J. van den Bosch PhD, Y. A. Hekster PhDt, H. J. van den Hoogen and F. G. Zitman PhD, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (2000) 25, 61-66.  This study found that people who did not take anti-depressants had at least as good results in terms of depression recurrence as those who did.
  • Raising Questions about Antidepressants, by David O. Antonuccio William G. Dantona Garland Y. DeNelskyb, Roger P. Greenbergc James S. Gordond, Psychother Psychosom 1999;68:3–14.  This paper explores relevant research data and raises questions about these beliefs and that many of the common beliefs about these medications are not adequately supported by scientific data: (1) industry-funded research studies which result in negative findings sometimes do not get published; (2) placebo washout procedures may bias results in some studies; (3) there are serious questions about the integrity of the double-blind procedure; (4) the ‘true’ antidepressant drug effect in adults appears to be relatively small; (5) there is minimal evidence of antidepressant efficacy in children; (6) side effects are fairly common even with the newer antidepressants; (7) combining medications raises the risk for more serious complications; (8) all antidepressants can cause withdrawal symptoms; (9) genetic influences on unipolar depression appear to be weaker than environmental influences; (10) biochemical theories of depression are as yet unproven; (11) biological markers specific for depression have been elusive; (12) dosage and plasma levels of antidepressants have been minimally related to treatment outcome; (13) preliminary evidence suggests that patients who improve with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy show similar biological changes as those who respond to medication, and (14) the evidence suggests that psychological interventions are at least as effective as pharmacotherapy in treating depression, even if severe, especially when patient-rated measures are used and long-term follow-up is considered. 
  • Reply to the American College of Neuropharmacology's Report on SSRI and Suicidal Behavior in Children, by Jonathan Leo, Ph.D.

    Last modified 10/23/2016
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